HIST week 5 notes
HIST week 5 notes HIST 150
Popular in History in the Western World
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
HIST 150 Week 5 0922 amp 0924 More on Greece VI Greek Classical Culture a Medicine used to be something that people prayed to the gods for but Hippocrates found that it was more of a process of nding what worked and using that treatment on others b History used to be what happened because the gods wanted it to happen but Herodotus said that history is thinking about things that happened and asking questions and nding answers Persian Wars Thucydides did the same thing with the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta Sparta won c Plays were usually either comedy or tragedy but both usually questioned a common belief such as the treatment of women d Philosophy was seen as the cosmos or the order of the universe 1 Socrates would ask people what they thought things were faith hope etc rather than what the original belief was he was tried for atheism and corruption of the youth and was killed he never wrote anything but his beliefs were written by his student Plato 2 Plato taught that we know that we are the same person that we are now compared to who we were when we were kids because we are in touch with our souls which are eternal in different forms of humans or trees or any type of thing he taught Aristotle 3 Aristotle thought that the soul did die with the body he rationalized ethics into four virtues that people should live by courage temperance prudence justice and he told us in The Politics that we are social animals that are different from other animals because we have a sense of justice and logic A good government run by one person was a monarchy but if it was run badly by one person it was tyranny A good government run by a few people was an aristocracy but if it was run badly it was an oligarchy A good government that was run by many was a polity but if it was run badly it was a democracy he said polity was the best form of government e Alexander the Great was the man who conquered the Persian Empire who was also the student of Aristotle 1 He became pharaoh when he got to Egypt but married a Afghan woman 2 He died just over 30 years old and his chief military commander Ptolemy killed his son and wife and split up his empire among the other generals Rome 1 Basic structure a Rome was not a Polis like the Greek way of life b Any Latinspeaking person could become a citizen Roman citizens if they deserved corporal punishment for a crime they had committed had a quick death while non citizens had long painful deaths 1 Patricians were the highest citizens who held government positions and were army officers 2 Equestrians were the middle class citizens who could be in the calvary but could not hold a government position 3 Plebeians were the lower class who were the foot soldiers and could not hold a government position c The plebeians threatened to start their own empire until tribunes were elected to veto any law that they did not think bene ted the plebeians later they threatened to leave again and they allowed anyone to have a position in the government d Paying taxes effected subjects of Rome subjects were not citizens but could be granted citizenship 1 Subjects were from conquered countries such as Spain Greece and N Africa and could serve 20 years in the army to gain citizenship after the 20 years they can serve another 20 years to get a plot of land 2 Rich citizens patricians would pay taxes for an area then hire publicans to collect money from the subjects in the area plus a little extra to make some money off of it 3 Soldiers who had small farms when they went off to ght were many times sold by the time they got back so they ended up poor and not able to pay taxes 11 Politics a Army generals were the main politicians l The general who was best at looting and gaining wealth were the best generals because they would typically split the wealth fairly among their soldiers 2 Politicians would bribe people to vote for them by having bread and circuses food and entertainment b Julius Caesar was one of the best generals he was supposed to lay down his arms before he got into Rome but he didn t disarm and became kind of like a dictator some people didn t like him because he was undermining the law c Caesar s great nephew Octavian was a politician but not a general but he was good at bread and circuses so the people loved him before he died he was able to pack the Senate full of people who would vote for his ideas he also gave himself the titles PontifeX Maximus leader of the Roman religion and Imperator leader of the Roman army 111 Religion a Most Roman religions were Hellenistic Greek in uenced and were called the mystery religions most Greek gods even had a Roman counterpart such as Zeus and Jupiter and Athena and Minerva 1 Dionysius was the Roman god of wine was resurrected by Zeus 2 Mithras killed a cosmic bull as a sacri ce to maintain life on earth followers were baptized literally in the blood of a bull 3 Isis the Egyptian god of motherhood resurrected her husband Osiris 4 The cult of Cybele was disapproved of because some of the men would publicly castrate themselves b Christianity began with Judaism which began with Abraham whose grandson was named Jacob but he was known as Israel whose 12 sons began the 12 Tribes and the 2 kingdoms Israel and Judah 1 The kingdom of Israel with the capitol city of Samaria was made of 10 of the Tribes and had a king named Ahab who was the rst character in the Bible to be recognized in the records of other nations Israel was later captured and destroyed by the Assyrians 2 The kingdom of Judah with the capitol city of Jerusalem was made of the Tribes Judah and Benjamin with a king named Josiah they were later captured by Babylonians but were set free to go back home after a time 3 There were prophets such as Amos and Isaiah who were the voice of God to the two kingdoms
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