New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 23 Notes.
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Popular in Biology

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.


Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/17/16
AampP 2 Chapter 23 The Respiratory System Breathing and Respiration Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere blood and cells 0 The combination of 3 processes is required for respiration to occur ventilation External Respiration amp Internal Respiration The cardiovascular system assists the respiratory system by transporting gases Structures of the Respiratory System Structurally the components of the respiratory system are divided into 2 parts Upper and Lower respiratory systems Theses are divided into 2 zones functionally Conducting zone amp Respiratory zone Respiratory System Anatomy 0 The upper respiratory system consists of the nose pharynx and associated structures 0 The lower respiratory system consists of the larynx trachea bronchi andlungs Cartilaginous Framework of the Nose The external portion of the nose is made of cartilage and skin and is lined with mucous membrane Internal Anatomy of the Nose o Bony framework of the nose is formed by the frontal nasal amp maxillary bones Surface Anatomy of the Nose o 4 parts Root Apex Bridge amp External Nairs Pharynx functions as a passageway for air and food provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds and houses the tonsils which participate in immunological reactions against foreign invaders Larynx voice box is a passageway that connects the pharynx and trachea Contains vocal folds which produce sound when they vibrate Trachea o Extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi Bronchi At the superior border of the 5th thoracic vertebrae the trachea branches into a right primary bronchus which enters the right lung and a left primary bronchus which enters the left lung 0 Before entering the lungs the primary bronchi further divide to form smaller and smaller diameter branches 0 Branching of Bronchial Tree TracheaMain Bronchi Lobar Bronchi Segmental Bronchi Bronchioles Terminal Bronchioles 0 Terminal Bronchioles are the end of the conducting zone Lungs Lungs are paried organs in the thoracic cavity 0 They are enclosed and protected by the pleural membrane Alveoli 0 When the conducting zone ends at the terminal bronchioles the respiratory zone begins 0 The respiratory zone terminates at the alveoli the quotair sacsquot found within the lungs 0 Microscopic Airways espiratory Bronchioles Alveolar Ducts Alveolar Sacs Alveoli Aveous o 2 kinds of alveolar cells Type 1 and Type 2 Respiratory Membrane The respiratory membrane is composed of 1 A layer of type I and type II alveolar cells and associated alveolar macrophages that constitutes the alveolar wall 0 2 an epithelial basement membrane underlying the alveolar wall 3 a capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane 4 the capillary endothelium Blood Supply to the Lungs 0 Blood enters the lungs via the pulmonary arteries pulmonary circulation and the bronchial arteries systemic circulation 0 Blood exits the lungs via the pulmonary veins and the bronchial veins 0 Ventilationperfusion coupling Vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia diverts blood from poorly ventilated areas to well ventilated areas Pulmonary Ventilation ln pulmonary ventilation air ows between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs because of alternating pressure differences created by contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles Inhalation amp Exhalation Boyle s Law 0 Pressure changes that drive inhalation and exhalation are governer in part by Boyle s Law Other Factors Affecting Pulmonary Ventilation Surface Tension lnwardly directed force in the alveoli which must be overcome to expand the lungs during each inspiration 0 Elastic recoil Decreaes the size of the alveoli during expiration Compliance Ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded Breathing Patterns and Respiratory Movements Eupnea Apnea Dyspnea Tachypnea Costal breathing o Diaphragmatic breathing Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Dalton s Law Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present 0 Henry s Law The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient when the temperature remains constant External and Internal Respiration 0 During external respiration oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries C02 moves in the opposite direction 0 During internal respiration oxygen will diffuse from the systemic capillaries into the tissue 0 C02 moves in the opposite direction Transport of 02 and C02 in the Blood 0 Oxygen 15 of the 02 is dissolved in the plasma o 985 of the 02 is carried by hemoglobin Hb Carbon dioxide 0 7 of the C02 is dissolved in the plasma 0 23 of the C02 is carried by Hb inside red blood cells as carbaminohemoglobin 70 of the C02 is transported as bicarbonate ions HCO3 Factors Affecting the Affinity of Hb for 02 0 P02 pH Temperature BPG amp Type of Hb Control of Respiration Cortical in uences Allow conscious control of respiration that may be needed to avoid inhaling noxious gases or water Chemoreceptor Central and peripheral chemoreceptors monitor levels of 02 and C02 and provide input to the respiratory center 0 Hypercapnia A slight increase in PC02 and thus H amp Stimulates central chemoreceptors Hypoxia Oxygen de ciency at the tissue level amp Caused by a low P02 in arterial blood due to high altitude airway obstruction or uid in the lungs Exercise and the Respiratory System 0 The respiratory and cardiovascular systems make adjustments in response to both the intensity and duration of exercise 0 As cardiac output rises the blood ow to the lungs termed pulmonary perfusion increases as well 0 The 02 diffusing capacity may increase threefold during maximal exercise so there is a greater surface area available for 02 diffusion Aging and the Respiratory System 0 Aging results in decreased vital capacity blood 02 level alveolar macrophage activity amp ciliary action of respiratory epithelia Consequently elderly people are more susceptible to pneumonia bronchitis emphysema and other issues What is the main transport of C02 in the body Bicarbonate ions


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.