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GEOL week 5

by: Jessica_Kline

GEOL week 5 GEOL 101-01

GPA 3.78
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson

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Volcanoes and Sedimentary rock
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101-01 at Ball State University taught by Kirsten N. Nicholson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth's geological environment in Science at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
GEOL 101 Week 5 0921 amp 0923 Still Volcanoes from last week 6 Volcanic domes are formed when magma is being forced outward so that the outside cools to form a dome shape 7 A crater is basically just a small caldera all volcanoes have a crater 8 A vent is a very small crater where lava and gas leak out sometimes on the side of a volcano 9 Geysers and hot springsthermal springs are results of a volcano V Hazards a Primary hazards are directly a result of the volcano the main one is lava ows 1 Pahoehoeropy ows are basaltic and have very low viscosity thin very high temperatures and can move up to 1 meterhour 2 Ahblocky ows are basaltic and have high viscosity thick lower temperatures and can move up to 2 meters day b Ways to try to control include bombing new pathways for them hydraulic chilling spraying them with water to cool them down and building walls or barriers c Secondary hazards are caused indirectly by the volcano mostly pyroclastic things things blown out from a volcano 1 Volcanic bombs are molten lava blown out of a volcano but don t travel very far because they can be heavy 2 Ash falls can cover a huge area killing all plants polluting water damaging buildings and transportation and causing health issues from breathing it in along with atmospheric changes 3 Ash ows pretty much wipe out everything in their path and can move at 200 meters second there is also very very hot air above an ash ow 1000 degrees C that spreads much farther than the ash itself 4 Poisonous gases include CO HS 802 but mainly consist of water and C02 5 Laharsdebris owsmud ows are the most dangerous because they are so unpredictable they are caused by the heat of the volcano melting snow on top of the volcano that runs down the side of the volcano VI Forecasting Volcanic Activity a Geophysics uses seismic activity and thermal and magnetic properties to predict volcanic activity b Topographic monitoring watches the slopes of the volcanoes to see if they steepen steeper slopes are a sign that a volcano is close to erupting c Monitoring gas emissions allows to see changes in the movement of magma d Geologic history allows volcanologists to know if a volcano eruption will effect an area such as Indiana where a volcano has never erupted Sedimentary Rocks I Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediments from any type of rock that had been weathered either chemically or physically 75 of exposed rock above water is sedimentary aWeathering 1 Physical weathering is caused by wedging of tree roots and water as they growexpand and crack the rock thermal expansion causes rocks to cnwkasnmgna nmkacmmngjmnwmadindwrmm 2 Chemical weathering is nearly always naturally caused by water b Rock layering of sedimentary rocks is composed of layers 0 A B C R and E 1 O is the highest layer which is full of organic materials such as leaves trees grasses and other liVing things 2 A B and C are just layers that gradually increase in the size of rocks and decrease in the amount of organic material 3 E is somewhere inside the A B and C layers which is a white layer that has many of the minerals sucked out of it this layer can uctuate in its position 4 R is the layer of solid rock underneath the soil 5 Soil texture depends on the amounts of clay sand and silt the perfect balance of the three is called loam c There are three types of sedimentary rocks terrestrial oceanic and transitional l Terrestrial formed by lakes rivers deserts and alluVial fans mountain runoff


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