Test 2 Notes
Test 2 Notes AVS 1500
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
09142015 September 16 2015 1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology a Anatomy is the structure of the animal Gross anatomy the entire structure ii Microscopic iii Developmental inutero during gestation during growth b Physiology is the function of that structure Based on the organ system itself c Levels of organization Anatomy 1 2 3 Chemical level Cellular level Tissue level made up of cells ex connective tissue skeletal muscle 4 Organ level heart 5 6 Organism the animal comprised of all the organ Organ systems digestive tract systems Homeostasis balance healthly 1 2 3 Not in homeostasis say they are diseased Could be as simple as common cold or bad as deathbed Occurs with all organ systems together neverjust one system As the animal ages the organ systems start to wear out become less effective more susceptible to disease Organ systems 1 2 3 Integument Skin Skeletal Muscular 10 11 wm ewe Nervous Endocrine Hormones Cardiovascular Lymphatic and Immune Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive d Biochemistry is about chemistry in a living organism Metabolism Chemistry necessary to maintain homeostasis i Living creatures are made up of chemicals ii Physiological processes are made up of chemical reactions iii ATP is necessary for reactions to happen within the body iv Different types of Energy 1 4 s e Cell Theory You take one form of energy you convert it to another form 2 As converted lose energy because heat is lost 3 Bonds being broken chemical bond is not a physical structure it s a relationshipform of energy as they are broken energy source is altered Chemical energies help move molecules and nutrients muscle movement Animals body survives on chemical reactions chemical energies nutrients i Four concepts 1 2 3 Cell is basic structural and functional unit of a living organism The activity of the organism depends on individual and collective activities of the cell The biochemical activities of cells are dictatedregulated by the relative number of subcellular structures a RBC no nucleus b Mitocondria ATP some cells have multiple mitochondria c Not every cell has the same subcellular structures 4 Continuity of life has a cellular basis If the cell dies the animal dies September 18 2015 1 Organ System details a lntegument Skin hide leather i Not wool but the skin below the wool ii The largest organ system in mammalian species iii First line of defense from germs disease environmental toxicants protection mechanism iv Anything that breaches the integument has the ability to cause an infection v Helps regulate body temp aids in water conservation dissipates out through sweat vi Risk of infection and risk of dehydration are 2 things constantly battling with 3rd degree burns b Skeletal i Structure ii Skull protects brain iii spine protects spinal cord iv Skeleton stores nutrients Calcium v Bones make movement possible c Muscular System i Contraction and Relaxation 1 Contraction pulls on bones 2 Relaxation pulls on opposite side of contraction bones 3 Does not have to be attached to bone still follows the same patterns ii Moves things internally and externally iii Not all muscle is under voluntary control iv Protects converts heat v Comprised about 50 body weight vi Made up of mostly protein Needs nutrients to drive chemical reactions in the body d Nervous System i A bunch of chemical reactions ii Central Nervous System CNS 1 Brain on a stick brain and spinal cord i Peripheral Nervous System PNS 1 Everything outside the brain on a stick 2 Nerves iv Everything in life is linked to the nervous system v Animals humans regulate body temperature 1 Hypothalamus hunger sex drive body temp vi Once nerves are damaged maybe healing can happen depending on location and severity vii Easier to teach a child anything because of stimulation viii lmpulses and messages that are sent are lightening fast ix lnnate some things are just there Could be conserved geneUcaHy 1 On campus some student is running across Library Bridge quotwild cat Wild cat1quot You look it s a kitten What do you do Don t jump in running yelling Same thing but really a wild cat you start running 2 Boiling huge pot of water for spaghetti For some reason the pot falls to the oor you jump out of the way What if your parents just got you the puppy of your dreams Sound asleep at your feet when pot falls You wont have the same reaction as before
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