Organic Notes- Week of Sept21
Organic Notes- Week of Sept21 CHEM350
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Emery on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM350 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. John Bartmess in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
925 Naming Alkenes this WILL be on the exam 0 Use priority to determine the longest carbon chain 0 Parent chain MUST include the highest priority 0 Follow alkane rules 0 Establish stereochemistry name E like trans Z like cis Be careful of pre xes and suffixes Naming Cycloalkenes To establish where the double bond is name the highest priority substituent the lowest possible number in relation to the double bond 0 Assume it will always be Z so not needed in the name 0 You cannot have a trans double bonds in small rings smallest synthesized was cyclooctene smallest stable one is cyclononene Multiple Double Bonds 0 Add quotdiquot before quotenequot in the IUPAC name 0 E and Z stereochemistry applies still only when a carbon has 4 unique groups Conjugation of pi bonds leads to coloration of pi bonds Mechanisms Multistep reactions Reactants Transition state intermediate transition state products Concerted mechanism no intermediate everything done in one step Step wise mechanism has one or more intermediate steps Exothermic early transition state close to the left will resemble the reactants Endothermic late transition state more to the right will resemble the products Neutral central transition state in the center of the reaction coordinate A transition state exists for one vibration of the bond 0 We do not know their actual structure they move too quickly Hammond s Postulate structure of the transition state resembles either the reaction or the products depending on which on it is closer to in energy Electron pushing mechanism curved arrow mechanism double tipped arrow denotes the motion of an electron pair a single tipped arrow depicts only one electron Priority List OH gt CC gt R X OR 921 Bigger orbitals more electron spread more stable bigger Bigger because split into two radicals Rates RatemoltimekAB rate law 0 k is a rate constant related to the activation barrier O keAGRT Relative rate constants pKa Affected by resonance 0 More resonance forms weaker conjugate base stronger acid lnductivePolarElectrostatic effect 0 Push and pull in a molecule to change its electronegativity Electron accepting groups Electron donating group More electronegative atoms stronger acid 923 If the base is lower in the scale than the acid the reactants are favored at equilibrium Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Saturated Hydrocarbons o Alkanes CnH2n2 o Alkene CnHZn o Alkyne CnHZn2 v monovalent Hydrogen De ciency Nc139NH239NX2NN2 lttrivaent quottetravalent 63kcalmole is lost when you rotate a pi bond sigma bonds rotate freely IUPAC Nomenclature Find highest priority atom multiple bonds 0 Find longest chain INCLUDING the highest priority 0 Name normally alkene instead of alkane Give prioritized atoms the lowest possible number Etrans Zcis Benzene Arenes Diene Phenyl Ph Aryl Ar
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