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Political Ideologies

by: dresaavedra

Political Ideologies POLS 104

American Govt. in Comp Perspective
Kathleen H. Winters

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American Govt. in Comp Perspective
Kathleen H. Winters
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by dresaavedra on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 104 at University of St. Thomas taught by Kathleen H. Winters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see American Govt. in Comp Perspective in Political Science at University of St. Thomas.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
092 52015 How would you de ne quotideologyquot Classical Liberal Ideology o In the classical liberal tradition individuals are at the center of the universe government merely exists to support and promote individual autonomy o Government s role limited amp small 0 Unresolved questions what are fundamental rights and liberties all individuals should enjoy 0 How well those rights amp liberties be protected and by whom Ideology amp Politics 0 If politics is quotwho gets what when and howquot ideologies primarily differ based on the following 0 quotWhoquot pays the costs and reaps the bene ts of government society 0 quotWhatquot each person or society gets 0 quotHowquot resources are distributed Ideology not only affects how a politician presents herself her stances on issues but also affects how she believes solutions to problems should be addressed Ideology can also shape issueframing Origins of Ideoloov Research suggests three possible origins of a person s ideology 0 Nature genetics 0 Nurture family values 0 Experiences individual Who gets the Cows Part 1 o In a Socialist society 0 The government takes them and puts them in a barn with everyone else s cows You have to take care of all the cows The government gives you as much milk as you need 0 In a Fascist society o The government takes them all hires you to take care them and sells you the milk 0 In a Dictatorship o The government takes them all and shoots you 0 In an Anarchist society 0 There is no government so whoever has the greatest ability to control the cows takes the cows and probably keeps all the milk 0 In a Classically Liberal Society 0 Individuals are responsible for taking care of their own cows and receive most of the milk The milk however is taxed and the proceeds are distributed among society 0 The more liberal the society the greater the government s involvement the tax rate is based on resources and distribution is based on need 0 The more conservative the society the greater each individual s responsibility the tax rate is equal and distribution is based on contribution In a direct democracy all of society votes on how the proceeds are distributed 0 In a Republic society votes for representatives who then decide how the proceeds are distributed The Major Components of Ideologies o The state of human nature 0 The role of the individual in society 0 The role of the state 0 The sources and limits of political authority 0 The preferred economic and social order Right Side of Spectrum Conservatism preserve the status quo oppose change 0 Reaction throw back the forces of change restore the old order 0 Fascism mobilize the nation for war suppress pluralism to achieve unity through orthodoxy Left Side of Spectrum Radicalism go to the roots of problems change the foundations of society Socialism advance the interest of society against the interest of elites Communism abolish private property to achieve equality Center of Spectrum Liberalism expand the scope of freedom accept change assert the primacy of individual rights develop market economy and political pluralism Borrows ideas from Left and Right Contrasting Key ldeas Liberalism Individualism freedom reason equality tolerance and consent Conservatism Tradition pragmatism hierarchy authority property human imperfection Socialism Community fraternity social equality need social class common ownership Collectivism Socialism and the Common Good Socialism is a form of collectivism Collectivism prioritized the common good over the good ofan individual Does not mean that individuals have no rights responsibilities Individualism prioritizes freedom of the individual over the collective good Does not mean that the common good is not important De nition of a State A quotpolitical unit that has ultimate sovereignty and ultimate responsibility for the conduct of its own affairs Four features 0 De ned territory 0 Permanent population 0 Effective government 0 Capacity to enter into relationships with other states De nition of a quotnationquot 0 More about a group s internal perception than externally judged characteristics 0 Three factors 0 Cultural common language heritage etc 0 Political natural political community Some neighborhoods are more liberal conservative etc o Psychological shared loyalty or affection Canada One nation or two 0 They speak English and French 0 Evolution of Politics and Formation of States Individuals band together for safety security and additional resources 0 How do two different quotbandsquot interact Increased complexity of social interactions increased need for politics States vs Governments What s the difference 0 Government structure through which state utilizes its power over its citizens territory etc 0 State permanent entity government is temporary o Politicians are part of government and act as means through which authority of state operates Ideology amp Role of Government 0 Role of government answers the question of what the purpose of a government should be 0 Under a collectivist ideology focus should be common societal good 0 Under an individualist ideology focus should be individual freedom autonomy Current US debate Role of Government 0 Should vaccinations be required lndividualist its your body you do what you want Collectivist n Minimal n Protects individuals 0 Developmental Economic development Social Democratic Both economic and social intervention remedying injustices o Collectivized State control over economics Totalitarian No distinction between public and private society all dictated by state 0 Religion Religion is basis for politics Law Justice and Roles of States Occupy home movements 0 State 1 Foreclosures are outlawed except under very few circumstances because it s an injustice to take away someone s home 0 State 2 Banks have full rights to foreclose except for reasons of discrimination because it s an injustice to require some people to pay their mortgages while others don t pay 0


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