Week 5 of Notes
Week 5 of Notes 403-2B
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dora Notetaker on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 403-2B at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Nikolaos Zahariadis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see International Relations Seminar in Public Relations at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
PSC 403 Seminar in International Studies Dr Zahariadis Notes Set 5 Week of Sept 21 Tue Sept 22 Recap o Neofunctionalism assumes that people want prosperity 0 And integration is driven by advances in technology 0 Goes from high to low politics Theory 4 lntergovernmentalism o 2 types 0 Liberal lntergovernmentalism o lntergovernmentalism o It says integration goes as far as governments want it to go 0 And it is initiated by governments not business 0 Integration is driven by intergovernmental bargains Neofunctionalism vs lntergovernmentalism o NeoFunct says that the more we integrate the more we will come to see its benefits 0 Integration will spill over into other sectors 0 Integration happens through elites 0 Its business oriented o Intergovt says that the convergence of interests is not necessary 0 Governments have individual interests and here and there they get together to make bargains that serve their interests Business may shape this process but never drive it Governments make bargains or exchange favors o NeoFunct says that identities would eventually move beyond interests and you will start to see a transfer of loyalty from the national to the supranational entity 0 Intergovt only driven by governments 0 So you will never see a transfer of loyalty o A transfer of loyalty would mean giving up sovereignty and governments don t want to do that o NeoFunct In order to speed up integration you need to speed up the advancement of technology and help boost the economy 0 lntergovt In order to speed up integration you need to slow down membership admission o If you limit membership your group will become more homogenous and there means less new opposition and less diversity of opinion Each country represents different ideas of integration When your group is less diluted it is easier to make decisions In the EU now it takes very long to make decisions I They are less able to reach a consensus especially if it is a controversial decision like the refugee crisis 0000 EU Institutions European Commission o It is the executive branch but with a twist o It is the bureaucracy of the EU 0 Func ons o It proposes drafts and implements legislation and the budget 0 The Commission should be nonpartisan and Europeoriented 0 Its members should throw away their national frame of mind and adopt what s best for Europe 0 Doesn t happen like this in practice 0 The Commission guards European treaties European Commission Organization 0 28 Commissioners 0 They come from 28 member states 0 New ones get added as new states are admitted o 1 President 0 7 Vice Presidents o 20 Commissioners o All of these make up what is called the College of Commissioners Decision making 0 The College has collective responsibility 0 The Commission presents a decision made by the College President of the Commission 0 Pres elected for 5 year terms 0 Renewable 1 time so most serve 10 years 0 President has no legislative authority 0 He can push bills but does not decide them Electing the President of the Commission Pres is selected by the European Council which is made up of the heads of state He or she is confirmed by the European Parliament The Pres then appoints his or her commissioners to make up the college These commissioners have to be approved by the European Council and the European Parliament 0 The Pres has to be someone with visibility so most often a treasury or foreign affairs minister but recently they ve been prime ministers of countries 0 Current Pres Juncker former PM of Luxembourg 0 Previous Pres Barroso former PM of Portugal 0 There is a fear that when the Pres comes from a small country they won t have any political weight may not be respected by major players like Germany c There is a tension between the Eur Parliament and the Commission 0 EP doesn t think the Commission should have proposal power 0 So a candidate for the Presidency of the Commission needs to be someone who will appeal to most of the European Parliament Thursdav Sept 24 2015 Our research outline is due on October 20 Commission continued 0 Think of it as the cabinet o It proposes implements but does not decide legislation 0 The president and the commissioners get approved at the same time and they leave office at the same time o The president selects his commissioners his team How commissioners are selected 0 The president asks each member state to send him candidates 0 He can ask for a particular portfolio 0 Like finance agriculture education etc Governments make deals with the president Major portfolios come from major powers OR countries that are very good at that particular portfolio 0 Dutch finance 0 French agriculture The president sends commissioner to the European Parliament to be approved The EP holds hearings 0 But not individual hearings 0 They have to vote on them as a group o This gives the Commission power of the EP Competition policy o It is when there are few players in a particular field due to mergers or acquisitions and this creates competition o The governments want as much as possible from the individual they select as a candidate for a commissioner 0 They may want to send people who 0 they want to reward 0 they want to get rid of 0 they fear 0 These people represent current government ideals so when there is a change in party in the government they will most likely send someone else 0 The commission tries to encourage diversity by asking for more women amp minorities to be sent as commissioners but they are always short on diversity Commissioners 0 These people have to shed national identity but this rarely happens in practice 0 They have to stand up to their own government to protect EU policy instead but then they must go back to their governments after their term ends and ask to be reappointed EU Headquarters 0 The commission HQ is in Brussels 0 Why Brussels o It is between Germany and France 0 So it is easy to get to but is not in either country 0 Some HQ s are in Luxembourg 0 printing offices 0 judicial offices 0 administrative offices 0 The EU Parliament is in Strasbourg Why 3 HQ s 0 National governments don t onejust1 place 0 France paid for Luxembourg HQ 0 Luxembourg is cheap 0 Members of the EP have to travel which is expensive but yet they don t want to change this 0 Because changing it would mean giving up sovereignty Each commissioner heads a directorate general 0 Directorate generals are departments 0 There are currently 34 DG s 0 They range from budget to education to agriculture etc c There are several DG s under 1 commissioner 0 Commissioners from large countries tend to have more DG s small countries tend to only have 1 0 Vice presidents usually have more than 1 Each DG is headed by a directorgeneral o Directorgenerals are civil servants 0 They are not appointed like the commissioners so they keep theirjob forever 0 They have some power because if they don t like the commissioner they can oppose his or her commands so nothing gets done 0 So commissioners always have to stay on the good side of directorgenerals o Directorgenerals are organized unionized so can t be touched c There is always some conflict between civil servants and political appointees Deputy directorgenerals 0 They are heads of units 0 Like the unit that deals with mergers and acquisitions 0 Deputy directorgenerals of different units meet then bring things to the commissioner who then brings it to the Commission 0 Units are like ladders 0 So there is a need in the Commission to coordinate civil servant and partisan interest DG s directorategenerals Currently there are 33197 people working in the Commission The majority work in 45 DG s The biggest DG Translation 0 Because there are 23 languages 0 Each document or bill has to be translated into 23 languages 0 Because these documents have to go into national legislations o The Commission has 2 12 official languages 0 English French and some German o If there is a conflict in translation English always prevails 0 Why have so many languages and a costly department just to translate 0 National governments don t want to lose their identity and their language is important to them 0 It s not rational but politically acceptable