Week 5 notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 324 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Readings Ch3 pg 78 skip Ch 4 Ch 5 pg 146 stopping at the roles of genes Ch6 171 Ch7 197 1 Development of the Nervous System a Starts out as a simple structure b Phases i Proliferation Neurons divide and multiply at extreme rate ii Migration neurons migrate to final location by climbing radial glial cells iii Circuit formation neurons send developing axons to make synapses with their target cells 1 Growth cone develops at tips of developing axons and move toward final targets using chemicalmolecular signals iv Circuit pruning extra neurons that have developed die and eliminates large number of extra synapses refines the organization v Plasticity ability of synapses to be modified by experience learning 1 Decreases with age cortical association areas are more likely to retain their plasticity Chapter 5 1 Drugs and Addiction a Drug external chemical substance that changes the body or its functioning i Psychoactive drugs have psychological effect anxiety relief hallucinations 1 Agonist mimics or enhances the effect of a neurotransmitter a Having same effect on receptor as NT or b Increasing effect of NT on receptor or c Blocking RE UPTAKE or degradation of NT 2 Antagonist blocks or reduces the effect of a NT a Binding to receptor without activating it prevents NT from binding to receptor and opening the related ion channel or b Reducing the availability of NT reducing productionrelease of NT from presynaptic terminals b Drug abused terminology i Addiction 1 Preoccupation with obtaining drug 2 Compulsive use of drug 3 High tendency to relapse after quitting ii Withdraw negative reaction when drug use is stopped 1 Symptoms often the opposite of effects of drug withdrawal from elation producing drug depression iii Tolerance increasing amounts of the drug are required to produce the same results 1 Mostly due to reduction in number andor sensitivity of receptors to the drug II DRUG TYPES OPIATES DEPRESSANTS STIMULANTS PSYCHEDELICS a Opiates i Derived from opium poppy 1 Opium abused since around 4000 BC 2 Morphine early 1800 s9effective treatment of intense pa1n 3 Heroine late 1800 s9 initially sold as an over the counter analgesic 4 Codeine cough suppressant ii Variety of effect 1 Analgesic pain relieving 2 Hypnotic sleep inducing 3 Produce euphoria intense sense of happiness iii Side effect addictive 1 Heroine a Highly soluble in lipids crosses the blood brain easily b Major danger is overdose i Drug too pure ii Tolerance iv Bind to opiate receptors act as agonists of endorphins pain relief Heroine is agonist of endorphins b Depressants Reduce activity of Central Nervous System CNS Antagonist of glutamate Agonist of GABA i Ethanol alcohol produced from fermented fruits grains etc waste product of bacteria 1 Complex action a High doses sedative calming hypnotic b Low doses stimulant euphoria aggression 2 Addictive Withdrawal involves tremors anxiety mood and sleep disturbances delirium tremens in worst cases hallucination seizures even death 4 Acts as antagonist of glutamate most prevalent excitatory in NT U 5 Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA receptors Barbitu l 2 ii a Facilitates opening of Clquot channels9hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane rates Derivatives of barbituric acid Complex action a High doses sedative and hypnotic b Low doses inhibits cortical centers that inhibit behavior talkativeness 3 Acts as antagonist of glutamate 4 Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA a In high doses can open Cl channels even without GABA potentially very dangerous even coma or death 5 Used to be only antidepressants iii Benzoa iazepines 1 Similar to barbiturates but safer a Cannot open chloride channels on their own 2 Produce anxiolytic anxiety reducing sedative anti seizure and muscle relaxing effects 3 Addictive c Stimulant Increase activity of CNS Agonist of DOPAMINE i Cocaine l Produces euphoria increased alertness relief from fatigue 2 Used to be legal as an ingredient in over the counter medication and Coca Cola 3 Acts a agonist of dopamine and serotonin by blocking their reuptake 4 Addictive Withdrawal symptom include depression and anxiety 5 Can cause brain damage seizures and psychotic symptoms ii Amphetamines 1 Synthetic drugs methamphetamine speed crank crystal 2 Produce euphoria increase in confidence alertness and concentration 3 Acts as agonist of dopamine and norepinephrine by increasing their release in the synaptic cleft 4 In high doses can cause hallucinations delusions and other psychotic like symptoms iii Nicotine 1 Primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco 2 Complex action a Short puffs stimulating effect b Long puffs depressant effect 3 Acts as agonist of acetylcholine activates muscles increases alertness 4 Addictive withdrawal symptoms include nervousness anxiety drowsiness lightheadedness headaches iv Caffeine 1 Primary psychoactive agent in coffee 2 Produces arousal alertness and decreased sleepiness 3 Acts as agonist of dopamine and acetylcholine by increasing their release in the synaptic cleft 4 Withdrawal symptoms include headaches fatigue anxiety shakiness craving d Psychedelics caused perceptual distortions of objects time self accompanied by euphoria i LSD similar to serotonin binds to serotonin receptors ii Ecstasy MDMA causes release of dopamine and serotonin kills serotonin neurons in monkeys iii Angel dust PCP produces schizophrenia like symptoms in humans 1 Inhibits Agonist glutamate receptors 2 Increases activity of dopamine pathways 3 All of the psychedelics drugs are addictive iv Marijuana l Dried crushed leaves and owers of Indian hemp plant 2 Major psychoactive ingredient THC a Particularly concentrated in the dried resin of the plant hashish 3 THC acts as agonist of NT anandamide and 2AG by binding to their receptors cannabinoid receptors 9 widely distributed in CNS 4 Anandamide and 2 AG may play important role in the regulation of mood memory appetite and pain perception effects of marijuana 5 Withdrawal symptoms are associated with stopping use eg anxiety irritability stomach cramps III Addiction a Criteria i Preoccupation with obtaining drug ii Compulsive use of drug iii High tendency to relapse after quitting b Theories for why addiction occurs i Withdrawal Avoidance Hypothesis addiction is caused by desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms 1 Withdrawal negative reaction when drug use is stopped 2 Doesn t explain use of drug before dependence develops 3 Different areas of the brain seem to be involved in withdrawal and addiction ii Picture of Brain in Ch 5 MesolimboCortical gt Reward gt Addiction Dopamine System Axons from Nucleus Accumbens Nucleus Accumbens Medial Forebrain Bundle Ventral Tegmental Area PeriVentricuIarPeriAqueductal Gray Withdrawal iii MesolimboCortical Dopamine System 1 Nucleus Accumbens NACC rich in dopamine receptors 2 Nearly all abused drugs increased dopamine levels in NACC 3 Reducing dopamine level in NACC decreased rewarding effects of drug 4 This all shows that increase in dopamine in NACC may be the neural basis for rewarding effect of drugs 5 May be part of a general reward system a Electrical stimulation of the Medial Forebrain Bundle is rewarding in rats i Increases dopamine level in NACC b Involved in rewarding effects for behaviors of basic importance eg sex feeding i Increases dopamine level in NACC both humans and non 6 However a Apparent paradox lower number of dopamine receptors in drug users9possible innate trait i These people tend to receive less reward as much as other people ii reward deficiency syndrome vulnerability to drug abuse b Dopamine activity in MDS cannot account for all addictions i Benzodiazepines affect Glutamate and GABA levels ii Many continue to use drugs even When the effects are no longer pleasurable c Possible important role in learning i Just seeing drug paraphernalia can evoke craving in drug addicts ii Dopamine levels in MDS may act as teaching signals emphasizing importance of relevant stimuli IV Ending dependence on drugs a Overcoming Withdrawal symptoms i Difficult With nicotine or opiates ii Potentially life threatening With alcohol b Fighting against relapse c Pharmacological Treatments for Dependency i Agonist treatments I Replace addicting drug with another that has similar e ect a Nicotine gum b Methadone for heroin addiction ii Antagonist treatments 1 Involve drugs that block effects of addicting drugs a GABAA receptor blocker limits effect of alcohol iii Aversive treatments 1 Cause negative reaction When person takes the addicting drugs a Anti abuse prevents breakdown of alcohol by products makes you ill if you drink alcohol iv Antidrug vaccines l Stimulate immune system to produce antibodies that break down the drug a Long term action don t have to take a pill every morning b Avoid side effects of other medicines v Pharmacological treatments for drug addiction are still somewhat controversial
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