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Week 5

by: Allie S

Week 5 Psyc 3640

Allie S
GPA 3.46
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben

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About this Document

Ch 3 Cognitive Testing
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben
Class Notes
industrial psychology, Clemson
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
Review Intelligence as g Involves the ability to reason plan solve problems comprehend complex ideas amp learn from experience A high g high intelligence level How specific do we need to get with abilities Can we look at it as a higherlevel general cognitive ability Carroll s Hierarchical Model Identified 7 even more specific characteristics that better defines intelligence 9 Broad abilities I Fluid Crystallized General Visual Auditory Retrieval Cognitive intelligence intelligence memory perception perception ability speediness Specific abilities 7 characteristics 1 Fluid Intelligence 0 Dyanmic intelligence creative problemsolving 0 Typically younger people are stronger in this 2 Crystalized Intelligence 0 more solid method of problemsolving 0 Older wiser people 3 General Memory 0 Ability to convert short to longterm 4 Visual Perception Interpret visual stimuli make recognitions quickly 5 Auditory Perception Tonepitch distinguishes localize sound well Retrieval Ability Able to store but also RETRIEVE info quickly Cognitive Speediness Quick learners assimilate info fast 2 SENSORY ABILITIES 0 Vision 0 Visually determine differences and recognitions based on visual stimuli 0 Touch 0 Tactile control over senses a strong sense of touch can lead to high anxiety but could also be beneficial for some jobs ie massage therapists doctors This is why it is important to identify these differences in intelligence in order to place people in the correct job 0 Taste 0 A strong pallet that can discern different tastes that most can t Food critics foodies quality controltaste checkers Smell o Tied with taste usually 0 Hearing 0 Discerning tones pitches music Audio engineer singers Kinesthetic feedback 0 Similar to sense of touch able to understand the feedbackpressure from another object Surgeon can take the feedback from the scalpel to adjust their pressure 3 PHYSICAL ABILITIES Hogan39s Muscular Cardiovascular 39 Movement General Strength Endurance Factors Hogan s Basic Descriptors Fleishman39s Static Explosive Dynamic Stamina Extent Gross Gross and Reilly39s Strength Strength Strength Flexibility Body Body Basic Trunk Dynamic Equilibrium Coordination Descriptors Strength Flexibility Hogan s 3 major classifications 1 Muscular Strength 2 Cardio Endurance 3 Movement quality 1 Muscular Tension 0 static strength able to stay in place and experience tension 0 hanging push up at top 2 Muscular Power Explosive Strength power used 3 Muscular Endurance 0 Core Strength leg Cardio Endurance 1 Stamina endurance strength over a period of time Movement Quality 1 Flexibility 2 Balance 3 Neuromuscular Coordination Psychomotor Abilities 0 Also called sensorimotor or motor abilities O Calculations of movement to perform a task combining visual processes with movement in order to perform 0 Physical functions of movement associated with coordination dexterity and reaction time Fleishman s psychomotor abilities 0 0000000 F4 C TOR l Conscientiousness 2 Extraversion 3 Agreeableness A Emotional stability 5 Openness to experience Armhand steadiness Manual dexterity Finger dexterity Response orientation Rate control Reaction time Wristfinger speed Control precision CHAIM HEREMS Responsible prudent persistent planful achievement oriented Sociable assertive talkative ambitious energetic Goodnatured cooperative trusting likable friendly Secure calm poised relaxed Curious imaginative independent creative Source Based on Digman 1990 This model drives the personality tests used today Must know these 5 for the test Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuorticism Emotional stability Conscientiousness is highly related to performance Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional Stability Neuroticism can be used to Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measures 0 Faking o Selfpresentation People are aware of what characteristics are generally required for a job We see ourselves in a way that is more harsh more romanticized or less accurate than if a friend described you Selfpresenting in a different way we just don t always see that there are qualities you Should have Want to have and Actually have 0 Social desirability We present what we think people want of us Fitting what people want of us 0 Does faking really matter Not necessarily this means they know how to present themselves depends on a job 0 Skills 0 Practiced acts 0 Technical amp nontechnical o A skill vs an ability Skill cultivated practiced Show us where we are at given our predetermined ability Sensormotor ability innate a capacity 0 Knowledge 0 Collection of discrete but related facts amp information about a particular domain 0 Tacit knowledge gt street smartsquot general knowledge 0 Procedural knowledge gt knowing how the procedures steps etc o Declarative knowledge gt knowing that the What 0 Competencies 0 Sets of behaviors instrumental in accomplishing various activities 0 Combination of individual difference characteristics Allows a person to function at the minimally acceptable level the competencies needed to perform A GROUPINGcombo of individual differences we use to predict performance Emotional intelligence 0 Awareness of our own amp others emotions o Controversial construct mixed results 1 Assessing is difficult 2 Accuracy is not well documented Consciousness awarenessperception of ourself and the emotions of others allowing us to manipulate Able to discern an emotion in a person and then use that info to manipulate that person s emotions Traditionally we can manipulate our emotions evoking a thought rephrasing reappraising attention deployment Two Attributes Measured Using Two Different Procedures Attributes Methodde Paper and pencnltest lntemew Reasoning Soclal skills F igu re 34 Two Attributes Measured Using Two Different Procedures 19 We have two methods each will yield different results based on the method and the attributes you are assessing What is a Test 0 Objective amp standardized procedure for measuring a psychological construct using a sample of behavior 0 Observe visible behaviors to piece together a construct Attributes to be assessed 9 CONTENT 0 Ways to assess attributes 9 PROCESS What is the meaning of a test score 0 Norming amp norm groups used to interpret amp give meaning to a score need to have a baseline to compare to gives context 0 Test users amp test interpretation 0 Importance of training test administrators to correctly understand amp interpret results 0 Test battery 0 Collection of tests assessing variety of different attributes Speed vs power test 0 Power test test items that assess the whole distribution 0 Speed really easy questions see how quickly you finish Speed tests have rigid amp demanding time limits 0 Provide greater variability among candidates 0 Issue of relevance to job 0 May increase the risk of legal challenges Power Have NO rigid time limits Administrative Test Categories 0 Group vs individual 0 Individual tests useful in assessing a candidate s style of problem solving 0 Group testing is valuable in reducing costs 0 Paper amp pencil vs performance tests 0 Performance tests assess skill in performing tasks amp knowledge of how to carry out actions Bias Situation in which a given test results in statistical errors of prediction for a subgroup 0 When a certain group tests statistically different below the mean over and over 0 Leads to unfair unequal opportunities Fairness Value judgment about actions or decisions based on test scores Fairness same treatment X culture individual differences in culture in other cultures and effect on testing different meaning in different cultures integrity tests especially interpretations Test Q Assessment Procedures 0 Content the construct characteristics we are looking for 0 Process the way we go about getting our content 0 Content vs process 0 Important distinction for showing validity o Validity depends more on content of gathered information Validity the correlation found is ACCURATE conclusions drawn based on your testing DOES correlate The content individual difference is actual captured validly using the methodprocess we ve chosen Cognitive ability tests 0 Allow individuals to demonstrate what they know perceive remember understand or can work mentally o G general cognitive ability Mental working processes 0 Specific cognitive ability How do we test 0 Should we test for G or specific values and abilities Tests that produce a single score 0 Wonderlic Personnel Test WPT End with a single number similar to an IQ a 060 single index of mental ability 0 Tests of specific abilities 0 Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension Specific abilities test Wonderlic XmdLrlic w P T R Sample Questions N 5quot t 5quot 9 quot 5 Answers Which of the following is the earliest date A Jan 16 1898 B Feb 21 1889 C Feb 2 1898 D Jan 7 1898 E Jan 30 1889 LOW is to HIGH as EASY is to 2 J SUCCESSFUL K PURE L TALL M INTERESTING N DIFFICULT A featured product from an lntemet retailer generated 27 99 80 115 and 213 orders over a 5hour period Which graph below best represents this trend A B C D E What is the next number in the series 29 41 53 65 77 J 75 K 88 L 89 M 98 N 99 One word below appears in color What is the OPPOSITE of that word She gave a complex answer to the question and we all agreed with her A long B better C simple D wrong E kind Jose s monthly parking fee for April was 150 for May it was 10 more than April and for June 40 more than May His average monthly parking fee was 7 for these 3 months J 66 K 160 L 166 M 170 N 200 If the rst two statements are true is the nal statement true Sandra is responsible for ordering all office supplies Notebooks are office supplies Sandra is responsible for ordering notebooks C uncertain A yes B no Which THREE choices are needed to create the gure on the left Only pieces of the same color may overlap Which THREE of the following words have similar meanings J K L A observable B manifest C hypothetical D inde nite E theoretical Last year 12 out of 600 employees at a service organization were rewarded for their excellence in customer service which was of the employees J 1 K 2 L 3 M 4 N 6 LE 2 N 3 D 4 L 5C 6 M 7A 8 KLM 9CDE 10K Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test Which would be the better shears for cutting metal 0 Cognitive test batteries 0 General Aptitude Test Battery GATB Physical abilities testing 0 Often need to Engage in physical testing Perdue Pegboard Dexterity Test 0 Manual dexterity ability to move fluently and quickly while picking up small objectsinserting small objects etc Personality Screenout tests gt Identify psychopathology Generally used for positions of public trust 0 Government police doctors etc May only be administered after offer of employment 0 Would be discriminating legally need to screen out afterwards can only withdrawal offer after a certain score Best known example is the MMPI 0 To ensure that people with undesirable qualities are screened out people may have undesirable characteristics embedded in them Screenin tests gt Identify normal personality May be administered as preemployment tests Examples include HPI NEOPI PCI 0 Know highly desirable skills so we test and find them Radius ImagesAlamy Emotional intelligence Controversial construct Little agreement on definition or how to measure it Abilitybased EI measures have lower overlap with Big 5 personality measures whereas selfreport EI measures overlap strongly with Big 5 Ability or personality characteristic MSCEIT Test sample emotional intelligence ability based SEN0N H 1 Ken and Andy have been good friends for over 10 years Recently however Andy was promoted and became Ken39s manager Ken felt that the new promotion had changed Andy in that Andy had become very bossy to him How effective would Ken be in maintaining a good relationship if he chose to respond in each of the following ways Response 1 Ken tried to understand Andy39s new role and tried to adjust to the changes in their interactions a Very ineffective b Somewhat ineffective c Neutral d Somewhat effective e Very effective Response 2 Ken approached Andy and confronted him regarding the change in his behavior a Very ineffective b Somewhat ineffective c Neutral d Somewhat effective e Very effective Souncc Adapted from MSCEIT M Copyright 1999 2000 2002 Multi Health Systems Inc wwwmhscom All rights reserved Reproduced with permission Saville Consulting test 9 point scale that captures the elements of pe rso na l ity You will see a range of responses varying from very strongly agree to very strongly disagree Choose the response alternative that best describes how you feel Some statements are about being good at something and others are about what you prefer need or are interested in Read each statement carefully because there may be differences between what you are good at and what you may need Try to answer the questions from a work perspective as much as possible Very Very Strongly Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Agree Agree Agree a I need to have a clear set of priorities b I am great at encouraging others Capturing info about views on morality and integrity is increasingly more important Overt and Covert Integrity testing 1 Overt Integrity Test DIRECT Asks questions directly about past honesty behavior stealing etc as well as attitudes toward various behaviors employee theft etc 2 Personality Based Integrity Test 0 Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs conscientiousness reliability and social responsibility 0 Infers integrity and honesty from the questions 0 Personality becomes a PREDICTOR of integrity Overt DIRECT Covert Indirect personality based Overt Items There is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm True or False How often have you arrived at work under the in uence of alcohol Do your friends ever steal from their employers Covert or PersonalityBased Items Do you like taking risks Would your friends describe you as impulsive Would you consider challenging an authority figure SOURCE Spector P E 2000 Industrial and organizational psychology Research and practice 2nd ed New York John Wiley amp Sons Copyright 2000 Reprinted with permission of John Wiley amp Sons Inc There s been a shift to more individualized interview style testing as opposed to traditional pen and paper Individual assessment 0 Only one candidate or few is assessed on many different attributes o Likely to include ability amp personality tests personal history statement amp interviews 0 May include simulation exercises Criticisms of individual assessment 0 Issues of validity reliability amp ethics Interviews 0 Structured interview 0 Situational interview 0 Unstructured interview 0 Tend to coverjob knowledge abilities skills personality amp personorg fit


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