Week Six Notes
Week Six Notes History 370
Popular in History of the Caribbean
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Week Six Notes Caribbean Sugar Katie Albritton Study Soup Dominican Republic Intersexuality Unit Two overview Agriculture for profit Time consuming large labor force African slaves Most to Brazil and Caribbean Stigma associated with working in sugar today Legacy of European power Tremendous wealth gap Racially stratified society Slave Codes Enlightenment thinking Optimistic secular political thinking Bourban reforms of Spanish colonies Update economic situation 1770s Native American rebellion against the Spanish Abolition of slave trade and of slavery itself Revolutions Haiti Fear of slave rebellions 1 8 101 826 Most Spanish colonies become independent Af uent colonies Inspired by Enlightenment thinking Napoleon attacking Spain Puerto Rico and Cuba remain Spanish colonies Caribbean Sugar Ancient Sweeteners Sweeteners as luxury Honey Fruits owers palm trees Lead acetate Roman Empire Mental difficulties Cane sugar probably first in New Guinea India Most prolific producer of sugar Mediterranean Sugar Brought westward by Arabs Cyprus Biggest location of sugar in Middle Ages Sicily Venice Med Levantine Empire Bought a lot of the sugar Small operations Andalusia Algarve Southern Iberian Peninsula Becoming available to the rich Early Portuguese West Africa slave trade Want to get their population to preplague levels Henry the navigator Chronicle guy Slaves 1444 Kongo Christian kingdom in Kongo Slave trade becomes too ambitious makes them angry Spanish don39t have access to it yet Portuguese Atlantic Islands Madeiras More effective rollers introduced 1450s Heavy iron rollers Squeeze the sugar from the cane Med merchants came to avoid Venice Big supplier to Antwerp Belgium Big distribution center for Northern Europe By 1490s surpassed Cyprus in production Canaries Eventually part of Spanish Empire Cape Verdes Azores Founding of Portuguese Brazil Pedro Cabral Trying to sail around Africa found Brazil Sent caravel to Spain to inform them as he continues to India Ignored until French at Rio de J aneiro 1528 headquarters 1530 kick out French Captaincies Slaves in 1540s Capitaes engenhos Captain has to settle colony Largest sugar plantations anywhere Most in Pernambuco Cooperative enterprises Many Tupi ran away Brazilian natives Large mills Wind mills boilers rolling mills oxen Said to be industrial revolution Marxist scholars By 1550 nearly 3000 mills Pushed iron production Sweden Cane cultivation Labor intensive Extra labor native Perception that Africans agricultural accustomed to hot climate Brought many African slaves to Brazil Can be planted vertically or horizontally Experiments with how to grow 15 month growth season Go with two crops Harvest faster Winter season more rain Find something for slaves to do before harvest Portuguese Slave Code Cutting cane Very difficult physically Grasp cane high cut with machete Strong shoulders needed Excruciating labor Loaded onto ox carts Must do quickly to collect as much juice is possible Not many slave families Need men between 2227 years of age Squeezing the juice Must be done within 48 hours to avoid fermentation Iron rollers Heavy strong rollers Flattened some people Dangerous work Machete to cut off arm many maimed some killed Fingers and arms lost Boiling the syrup Highly skilled work Large fires large pots Slave foremen as exerts Test syrup for readiness Use fingers Foremen often cruel to slaves Punishment from one slave to another Bad injuries burns Smoke Plantation slavery in the new world is an awful job New brutality Dripping and claying Drip molasses out in drip jar Cone shaped jar open at bottom Brown turbinado or muscavado sugar results Can be further clayed into white sugar Dutch did so in Amsterdam Drip pots ubiquitous Found all over the place Sugar in loaves Distilling molasses into rum First liqueur Benedictine Monks Distillery process pioneered by Alchemists Rum distilleries at nearly every mill Lots of drunkenness dissipation Story of crab eating fingers off Many planters die young have bad health Lots of rum distilling in Boston Sold a lot of molasses to England Slaves in Brazil Portugal first access to West Africa 45 million to Brazil during slave era Largest number by far Large estates work brutal Lots of runaways Slaves in the south fishing marketing Slaves sent inland for gold rushes People sent to track down slaves that don39t come back PortugueseBrasilian Slave Code Roman Catholic Conversion Sundays off Church marketing Slave villages near manor house Want slaves to marry Plot of land allowed for provisions Baptism encouraged 2rld easiest French better Prevent runaways Allow drumming more African culture Quilombos Many runaways Can39t be caught Some Paulistas try Slave villages Quilombos permitted African language drumming Palmares most famous f 1605 Maroons in Jamaica Dutch Guiana The Spanish Caribbean Very first sugar produced at Jamaica 1513 Archaeological find Espa ola Larger enterprises Alternative to gold extraction Small but steady output Puerto Rico Peasanttype agriculture Sugar bit later Cuba Mostly ranching Sugar huge later Slaves from English Portuguese eventually from Dutch Dutch Occupation of Brazil West India Company project Dutch war against Spain back in 1621 Dutch occupy northern Brazil Sugar production enormous Enter slave trade increase volume Learn how to produce sugar Barbados Looking for cash crop Try tobacco can39t compete with Virginia John DraX studied Pernambuco sugar production First mills 1643 British colony Learn from the Dutch Slaves introduced 1647 Entire island broken up into estates Wealthiest colony through the 18th century Jamaica Western design British seize island 1655 Largest estates in British Caribbean Many become absenteeowned Coffee introduced as well Grows up hillsides Fewer slaves needed With Barbados source of sugar wealth St Domingue Pearl of the Antilles Most profitable of French colonies Former buccaneer Bertrand d39Oderon encourages agriculture French establish largest estates in the north In ux from Martinique Guadaloupe Colbert authorize first mill 1685 Spain formally cedes territory 1697 Coffee up hillsides in south and west Fewer slaves needed Free blacks Many own their own slaves Most profitable colony on earth in 18th century Martinique and Guadaloupe have smaller mills Smaller islands Much subsistence agriculture Some sugar Fewer slaves Peasant culture emerges on many islands Subsistence agriculture Spices transplanted from SE Asia Sugar culture shapes the Caribbean Slavery as core of society 90 Africans Coercion as ethos Absentee owners on large islands Many small European population controls Very large African population Slavery in the Caribbean Ancient Slavery Most societies had slaves Captives in war Sold into slavery Debt slavery Household servants retainers some agriculture Philosophy of Slavery Hebrews Slavery natural permitted Can be left as inheritance Can sell daughter as sex slave Hebrews only to be enslaved for six years Jews as slaves in Egypt Contested Aristotelian Some are hewers of wood and drawers of water Natural hierarchy of human existence New Testament Paul encourages slaves to obey their masters Jesus discusses appropriate punishment for slaves Luke Roman Slavery Slave Code Most as household servants Much agricultural work after Punic Wars After 3rd war 13 of population enslaved Enormous land grants to generals Slave Code of Justinian passed on into Romance Lands 6th c BCE Mining most arduous work Spartacus rebellion 78 BCE miners Asian Slavery Thought natural to human condition China Young slaves purchased as family members Can inherit Southeast Asia Important men own many slaves Most as household slaves Personal retainers Prestigious to have huge entourage Debt slavery Sell self and family into slavery Often improves condition materially and socially Slavery within Africa Common result of warfare Slaves used as soldiers Agricultural workers Marry into communities Part of society after generation or two Raids increase with Arab and western demand Arabs travel down East coast of Africa Arab slave dealers usually household or market servants Portuguese West Africa Trying to get gold sail around Africa W African societies not on coast Africans in canoe seized 1444 Sold as slaves in Lisbon Small market for slaves in Lisbon Household slaves Educated Ladinos Diplomatic relations with Kongo King has sons educated in Lisbon Relations sour as slave trade increases West African Slave markets El Minha P Luanda P Cape Coast Castle E Senegal F African slave markets capture and march to coast Many have never seen the ocean try to ee Keep in B arracoons Don39t really know where they are going Equiano Assembling a cargo Takes a while Best slaves wanted Strong men 1722 Captain gets best for himself Officers can also purchase Sturdy slow ships While assembling slaves angry upset Jump overboard Sharks The Middle Passage Ships sturdy slow Typically 200 slaves on board Peak ca 1770 60K per year Kept below decks Brought up for exercise Captains try to keep healthy alive Bring African foods Easiest crossing to Brazil Harder Bridgetown Cartagena At peak 20 die en route Dysentery Have ships quarantined before allowing people into cities Crews sick dead at same rate Poor health conditions Business of slave trade Royal Africa Company Asiento to Portugal 1595 England 1714 Portuguese Ongoing Brazil through 1889 Dutch Huge investments 17th c English Royal Africa company Biggest investment company in slavery Duke of York as lead investor France Guinea Company Senegal Decline as sugar neglected slavers odious Investments to into industry 1740s on Morality in question Resistance Captains try to minimize by separating language groups Jump overboard Most frightened by sharks Refuse to eat Insurrections Often assisted by women Slave women favored by captains Roam decks freely can often get keys to hatch shackles Occasionally captured or freed or resold by pirates Amistad famous mutiny 1839 In port in America Quarrantined off shore Re gain health let the very sick die Barracoons Fatten up slaves for sale Rub skin with lemon Priests usually afraid to enter Public sale or auction Slaves typically naked Inspect teeth groin beard skin sweat March off to plantation Some resistance easily crushed Most in Bridgetown Slave Codes French Code Noir 1685 Full rights of citizenship for freed slaves Baptism mandatory marriage Sundays off No gathering no harboring of fugitives Food and clothing to be provided Slaves not to be mutilated Portuguese Baptism marriage Sundays off Can join cofradias Garden plot Spanish From Roman Code Siete Partidas Marriage permitted Slavery is odious English Main regulations 1663 Barbados Reissued Jamaica Antigua Slaves as chattels later ch to real estate Not considered human 1 set of clothing per year Punished if you kill the slave but you can beat them as you will Most brutal of codes in Caribbean Working living conditions Sugar Extremely harsh work conditions Some as overseers Few household servants Small cabins or villages in Brazil Ranching In some Spanish areas vaqueros Some autonomy in big cities Mexico City Lima Rio de J aneiro Havana Household servants household managers Can often make contracts Many arrange marriages Lima Can become a master craftsmen Discipline Codes allow harsh beating Sometimes done by slave overseers Murder can be charged Esp if kill someone else39s slave Did not happen very often Ultimately the system rests on brutality and coercion Resistance Some at ports quickly squelched Few conspiracies Found out No where to run on small islands Quilombos in Brazil Maroon communities in Guianas Jamaica Jamaican maroons famous Nannytown and Trelawney groups main treaty with UK 1738 Forced to return new runaways Legend as woodsman athletes free people Maroon wars 1720s Cudjoe Nanny 1790s 1795 survivors sent to Nova Scotia then Africa Eliminate Maroon communities Manumission Gaining freedom Can be bought Most slave codes permit Most common Haiti Brazil Have opportunity to make money Master can free at any time Often frees his own children Significant communities of free blacks Haiti Brazil Indentured servants Most Irish or Scottish Treated worse than slaves Only have them for a few years Supposed to get land after term Often did not happen
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