New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Kaitlyn Endo

J201LectureNotesWeek9.pdf J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society)

Kaitlyn Endo
GPA 3.43
Media & Society
Bish Sen

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

J201 Lecture Notes Week 9
Media & Society
Bish Sen
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Media & Society

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society) at University of Oregon taught by Bish Sen in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see Media & Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.

Similar to J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society) at UO

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for J201LectureNotesWeek9.pdf


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/15
J201 Lecture Notes The Information and Computational Revolution 0 Information Revolution 0 Two previous industrial revolutions Britiain steam engine spinning jenny metallurgy Germany US electricity internal combustion engine science based chemicals steel telegraph telephone were more about the generation and distribution of energy 0 The new revolution refers to technologies of information and communication 0 Telegraph was the rst time that communication became faster than transportation l telegraph divorced the two and thus communication became almost instantaneous 0 Industrial Revolution 0 Beginning of machine driven factor production 0 3 aspects of the Industrial Revolution 0 Mechanization of agriculture 0 Urbanization 0 Beginning of machine driven factory production Arthmetical Machines 0 First calculation machines mechanized the basic operations of arithmetic 0 William Schickard invented the very rst such machine in 1623 in Tubingen Germany 0 Shortly afterwards the philosophers Blaise Pascal and Gottfried Leibniz aso invented machines which could add subtract multiply and divide completely automatically 0 Human Calculators 0 Napoleon wanted a rational system of property taxes and for this purpose the French mathematician Gaspard De Prony devised a system whereby a team of people mathematicians as well as barely numerate people worked on a series of steps to generate data 0 19th century 0 The increase in production in the 19th century led to a need for the control and management of information o Bureaucracy 0 Methods of information management 0 Machines to manipulate information Herman Hollerith 0 Designed a tabulating machine for the Census Bureau in 1890 which used a punch card system binary o Formed the Tabulating Machine Company which later sold it and it became IBM Huge social impact Give birth to one of the 3 or 4 most important names in computer history 3 aspects of Computers 0 calculating machines 0 representational machines 0 communicative machines Calculation 0 Previously machines mimicked our physical capabilitiesit extends human ability Thus car mimics legs Knife mimics nails Telescope mimics eyes Claude Shannon 0 Claude Shannonquotthe father of information theoryquot 0 In trying to build a machine that plays chess he showed it was possible to build electrical circuits equivalent to expressions in Boolean algebra Logical operators Mimicking Thought 0 Computers are machines that mimic thought 0 Here is a simple example We say quotThe sky is blue AND the sea is wetquot Whole sentence is true if both statements are true Or quotObama will win OR Romney will winquot Thinking circuits 0 Computers think by means of circuits that can mimic logical operators like quotand quot quotorquot etc o This is possible by converting all operations into a binary code computed of 1 to 0 o A bit is the smallest unit of info 0 lfl had to tell someone who won the election I need one bit of info Obama 1 o If there are three candidates I would need Digitization o The second revolutionary thing about computers is that they allow for the translation of any kind of info verbal visual etc o This allows for Perfect copying and preservation Instant transmission Manipulation cut and paste photoshop Digitization 2 O O O 0 Discrete info can be digitized very easily so letters of alphabet are digitized using ASCII code uses 7 bits so 128 characters A000 0001 6000 0111 Byte is a series of 8 bits so can represent 256 characters Internet 0 The third great revolution was connecting computers together in networks Computer Theoreticians O 0 Von Neumann a Hungarian mathematician wrote a report in 1945 A rst draft report on the EDVAC which gave a complete logical formulation of computer architecture and was the basis of all technological developments in subsequent years Turing in a paper written in 1936 theorized the notion of computability by imagining a machine which could carry out the operations characteristic of computers One signi cant property he isolated is that every computer can imitate all other computers Thus every computer is known as a universal Turing machine The Hierarchy of Functional Abstraction in a Computer 00000000 0 Program Programming lang Machine lang Memory Finite state machine Storage register Logic functions Switches Bits Harvard IBM Mark 1 O O In 1944 a collaboration between IBM and Harvard University led to the creation of the ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator This machine realized Babbage s dream of fully automatic calculation and the American Weekly said it would quotsolve problems which man had no hope solving perhaps even the problem of the origin of mankindquot Developments 0 Shift to silicon at Texas Instruments in 1954 o Invention of the integrated circuit in 1957 by Killby and Noyce cofounder of Fairchild o Invention of the microprocessor by Intel engineer Ted Hoff in 1971 ENIAC o The ENAIC The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer was rst electronic calculator using vacuum tubes which were part of radio and TV technology 0 It was created in the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania under the leadership ofJohn Mauchy Transistor o In 1947 the transistor semiconductors or chips was invented This made possible the processing of electric impulses thus enabling the coding of logic and communication with and between machines Bardeen Shockey Brattain UNIVAC o The creator of the ENIAC Maucth and Eckert then designed a more powerful computer known as UNIVAC Unable o UNIVAC s greatest success came when it predicted a landslide for Eisenhower in the 1952 elections Gallup and Roper predicted a close race 0 UNIVAC was the rst commercial computer produced in the US IBM 0 Soon afterwards IBM got into the action with their 701 and 702 series 0 It was only with its subsequent 650 series Watson called it computing s Model T that IBM machines displaced UNIVAC as most popular computers 0 By the end of the 19505 IBM was the 1 computer manufacurer sharing the market with smaller competitors like Sperry Rand Burroughs RCA Honeywell and GE Its next successful model was the 1401 which was a complete system IBM system360 o In 1964 IBM released its 360370 mainframe and came to dominate the industry Minicomputers o The Digital Equipment Corp founded by Kenneth Olsen and Harland Anderson developed a simple computer the PDP 1 which cost 125000 respectable computers cost 1 million or more Their PDP8 minicomputer released in 1965 cost only 18000 and reshaped the industry 0 Real Time 0 O 0 Until the 19605 computers systems were mainly fast calculators A crucial innovation was real time computing which meant that a system could respond to a new inputs almost instantaneously The SAGE defense system was the rst real time system but this approach had its rst signi cant impact with the IBM American Airlines Sabre Airline Reservations system developed in 1964 Can now look up tickets and what seats were available etc The UPC Universal Product Code used in supermarkets for purposes of sales monitoring and inventory control was another important application of a real time system 0 Software 0 Programming languages like FORTAN science and COBOL business application became widely used in the 505 and 605 Other innovations include the simple programming lang BASIC which utilized the newly developed time sharing computer system as opposed to the old batch processing system where users had submit input to a computer center which then processed the info in batches Universities had a building known as the computer center where you picked up your results


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.