J201 Midterm study guide.pdf
J201 Midterm study guide.pdf J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society)
Popular in Media & Society
J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society)
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Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
Journalism and Mass Communications
verified elite notetaker
Journalism and Mass Communications
verified elite notetaker
Journalism and Mass Communications
verified elite notetaker
Journalism and Mass Communications
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to J201 (Journalism, Bish Sen, Media & Society) at University of Oregon taught by Bish Sen in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Media & Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Midterm 1 1201 Study Guide Mass Communication 0 What is media 0 Commercials I Sign that many things have assumed the commodity form they are objects which can be bought and sold They have prices as well as voices 0 News I Facts conversation that society has with itself I Conversation is a function of democratic system I Politics news help sway voters way to produce speech 0 Entertainment I Stuff we consume but also sign that certain sites of sociality family and friendship are missing in contemporary life 0 Types of Communication lntrapersonal Group One to one interpersonal dyadic communication One to few small groups communication One to many mass communication 3 times without mass media I Pope Gregory V119 one to many in uences he masses I King same as pope whenever king says something everyone would listen and agree I Town cry also unofficial mass media 0 Models of communication 0 Linear model I Communicative events are isolated messages that ow from a single source to a single OOOOOO receive I Straight line process I A B I Harold Laswell s 5 Ws model 0 Who says 0 What in 0 Which channel 0 To Whom It May Concern 0 With What effect 0 CulturalHolistic model I Communicative events are part of a whole ensemble of other events and structures I Like a web 0 Transmission model 0 Reasons for growth of mass communication 0 Technology I Unsatisfactory answer because even if you have technology need social aspect to make worth of it I Using tech China invented printing and great ships but didn t do much with it o Literacy Bible need to read to directly communicate with God and thus technology was used and became more popular need for printing increase demand 0 Mass media enlarged because society developed in such a way that it needed it Democracy 0 Marketing 0 Newspapers Colonial Press 0 O 0 00000 First newspaper I First American newspaper Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic I 1690 I printer Benjamin Harris Why first in New England and not in South I Because most settlers were small farmers who got little return on their investment and thus turned to seafaring commerce john Campbell s Boston News Letter I First continuously published newspaper in North America I First published in 1704 I Content 0 Taxes imposed on people 0 What is happening in England 0 Local politics 0 Shipping 0 Four pages long with advertising on page 1amp4 Carried very opinionated editorials and shipping and commercial news on the inside pages 0 Many editors were subservient to their political masters 0 cost 6 cents 0 generally sold by subscriptions of 8 to 10 dollars annually 0 similar to the Wall Street journal 0 reports only the very important things and partisan stocks business capitalism 0 only the rich buy I newspapers of colonial time elite and has an agenda Iames Franklin s New England Courant I First independent paper I More vigorous and populist style of journalism I Started in 1721 I First paper that was printed without authorityquot thus paving the way for journalistic freedom 9 free politically First daily Stamp Act Bill of Rights Alien and Sedition Acts First Amendment 0 Penny Press 0 0 Why make it only a penny I Accessible I Spread ideas I Rise in advertisement I price is a result of changed philosphy Reasons behind the advent of the Penny Press why price newspapers fall I New era of history of the American press arose in the 18305 because 0 Technological innovation 0 Steam presses instead of mechanical presses o Inexpensive machine made paper instead of expensive handmade paper 0 Industrial Growth 0 The market boomed as home made goods began to be replaced by factor made goods 0 Penny press contributed to the sale of manufactured goods and to itself which people could afford to buy jacksonian Democracy 0 The election of Andrew jackson as the 7th President of the United States ushered in a populist democratic phase in American politics 0 james Gordon Bennett s New York Sun 1833 and New York Herald 1835 I Bennett prob first press baron o Horace Greeley I Most famous name of this period I Founded the New York Tribune in 1841 0 Change in names of newspapers I Names like Boston Daily Advertiser Baltimore Patriot and Mercantile Advertiser to names like The New York Sun and The New York Herald I quotsunquot 9 reliable always going to be there and sheds light9 therefore unbiased 9 better name 0 Type of content I Papers claimed that they were neutral in politics and often carried very little political news The New York Sun would often write the proceedings of Congress thus far would not interest our readersquot I Newspapers in the penny press era often carried fiction 0 Robbery rape suicide stingless bees from Mexico and the story of an abandoned child left in a basket 9 human interest stories became the staple of the Penny Press 0 Rise of the news agencies like Associated Press I Gathering of news more manageable 6 New York dailies founded the Associated Press AP 9 first major wire service 1848 I Shows both the commercialization of the news as well as its becoming objective I News becomes a commodity I Consequence of Associated Press is that reporter replaces the editor in hierarchy9 editor loses importance and reporter who gains 0 United Press International Major changes in American society after Civil War that contributed to newspaper boom 0 18651880 national wealth doubled by 1900 doubled again 0 symbols of this wealth were people like Rockefeller in oil Carnegie in steel Pullman in railroads Vanderbild and Morgan in finance Pillsbury in the milling industry and Swift in meatpacking 0 After Civil War I Country became more urban total pop of cities and towns rose from 11 million 1880 to 25 million 1900 I By 1900 32 out of a total population of 76 million were living in towns and cities of over 8000 I Railroads increased from 93000 miles 1880 to 193000 miles 1900 I Percentage of children attending public schools rose from 57 1870 to 72 1900 and illiteracy declined from 20 to 10 I Newspaper re ected general growth 0 of English dailies rose from 850 1880 to 1967 1900 I more industrial growth9 more democracy I rise in economy9 fight for markets I appeals to mass society9 everyone gets it Yellow journalism 0 Fight for markets led to period of Yellow journalism 9 phase characterized by exciting human interest stories crime news large headlines and more readable copy 0 except papers like New York Times9 reputable and well boughtthus don t need big headlines takes up too much space and not necessary 0 The New York World owned by joseph Pulitzer jewish Hungarian immigrant New York journal owned by William Randolph Hearst 0 Types of stories featured in Yellow journalism I Aimed at immigrants and the working class yellow journals was both sensationalist and populist O I Sensationalist stories on crime sex cannibalism advice columns and women s pages I Populist the World crusaded for improved urban housing better conditions for women and just labor laws ad campaigned against monopolistic companies like ATampT Standard Oil and Equitable Insurance 0 Pros and cons of Yellow journalism 0 Objectivemodern journalism 0 New York Times I New model of journalism I Introduced by Adolph Ochs who bought New York Times in 18969 made it more serious like how it is today I In direct contrast to sensational Yellow press I Positioned itself as an informational paper which provided stock and realestate reports to businesses court reports to legal professionals treaty summaries for politicians and theater book reviews for intellectuals 0 Wall Street Journal 0 Founding of UPI and other news agencies I Corresponding increase in newsgathering services the AP had existed from the 19th century UP was created in 1907 and INS in 1909 which would merge into the UPI or United Press International I In the international sphere these agencies competed with British organization Reuters and Angece FrancePresse 0 Today 0 Challenges for the Broadsheet I High overhead cost I Falling subscription rates I Fractured audiences 0 Challenges for the News Organization I Consolidation I Citizen Journalism I How to make money online 0 Newspaper industry Profits I Trend increase until 1998 then steady decline and slight rise again in 2012 but not as high as it was in 1998 Decline of Readership Decline of Daily Global Decline Digital isn t the entire answer for every 1 gained in digital 7 are lost in print revenue 0 Challenges I Chain ownership or concentration of ownership leads to lack of competition I Loss of advertising dollars particularly to digital media I High costs resulting in changes to content 0000 Radio 0 1864 James Clark Maxwell 0 English physicist and mathematician posited the idea of radio waves electromagnetic waves 0 1877 Henrich Hertz 0 German 0 Demonstrated the physical existence of radio waves 0 Beginning of wireless communication 0 1895 Guglilmo Marconi 0 Italian 0 Sent first message using telegraphic code and radio waves method was then known as wireless telegraphy 1906 Lee De Forest 0 American 0 Reginald Fessenden Canadian sent first voice message over radio however Forest transmitted a voice message but using a far more sophisticated device called the Audion Early Use 0 In early years broadcasting had not yet developed radio was stil used almost exclusively for pointtopoint communication chie y by the Navy Radio Act of 1912 0 Required all long distance ships carry radio equipment that had to be constantly run by operators 0 Forced all transmitters to be licensed Broadcasting 0 First broadcast I 1920 Frank Conrad set up radio station in his garage and broadcast music and news to his friends I he had first licensed radio station during Nov 1920 elections on top of a Westinghouse plant in Pittsburgh 0 footnote broadcasting comes from agriculture termthrow seeds all over some crops grow some don t Radio grows 0 Combo between newspaper and telephone exciting Every other country except for the US radio was controlled by govt public good 1923 more than 600 commercials and noncommercial stations why growth in such a short amt of time I 1922 ATampT introduced toll broadcasting in its WEAF station in New York charging a fee to carry ads I 15t Radio commercial was about condominiums in Jackson Heights Queens Change in advertising model 9 companies began to sponsor programs rather than put on direct ads Rise of networks 9 linking of radio stations that share programming produced at a central location 0 All radio stations help othersnot just one radio could survive by itself ATampT 0 1923 first network from NY to South Dartmouth o 1924 26 stations hooked up and ran from coast to coast 0 Originally Bell Telephone Company National Broadcasting Company NBC 0 1926 created by RCA s David Sarnoff Russian immigrant genius in marketingtvradio o owned by RCA GE Westinghouse 0 Programming divided into 2 networks I NBCRed I NBCBlue 0 Programming director Bertha Brainard Columbia Broadcasting Company CBS 0 1928 Emerged and competed with NBC 0 William Paley and CBS Radio Act of 1927 o Attempt to restore order to airwaves through broadcast licenses o Promoted the idea of public interest 9 Can own airwave by individual 0 Created the Federal Radio Commission FRC which favored large broadcasters Communications Act 1934 o FRC was replaced by the Federal Communication Commission FCC 0 New era of govt regulation 0 Antimonopolylegislation Golden Age of Radio 0 1930mid1950s OOO I During golden age families gathered around the radio to listen to favorite programs I Created radio s credibility 9 people believed in it Primetime radio 0 Evening time aimed at family Comedy variety shows Amateur performer shows Prestige dramas Lux Radio Theater Mercury Theatre on the Air Programming I Drama I Soap operas I Variety shows and quiz shows I News reporting war reporting by Edward Murrow I Programming Major shows 0 Amos quotnquot Andy9 consisted of 2 characters who pretended to be African American couldn t transition from white voices pretending to be black to white actors pretending to be black on TVshow was canceled makes sense since civil rights movement in 40 s 0 The Lone Ranger 9 very popular but in 1950s westerns fell off the map 1900s westerns very powerful and popular 0 Maxwell House 0 Showboat 0 George Burns and Gracie Allen 0 Eddie Cantor 0 Bing Crosby 0 Jack Benny Golden Age of TV 0 Radio stars formats genres and business models moved to TV 0 Talent raids 0 Radio turned to music news and talk shows Irna Phillips 0 Producer 0 Created soap opera on radio 9 sponsored by soap companies I Painted Dreams I Guiding Light Instant News 0 Radio news became a rival to newspapers 0 Greater immediacy I Hindenburg disaster 1937 I WWII 19391945 I Edward R Murrow reporter reported about the war front gold standards of American broadcasting I The War of the Worlds broadcast Oct 31 1938 0 Fake radio war 9 terror through US sent public in panic 0 Shows that people trust what is being reported re ected radios intimate communication style 0 Public s faith in radio as broadcaster of reality9 assumption that whatever said on radio is true 0 Convergence of radio literature and theater 0 Radio delivered a share common experience Radio 1945 0 Rise of D and casual personal address 0 Networks replaced by local stations OOOOOO OOOOOO 39 F 0000 O O O 3 Invention of transistors made radio private Talk radio Don imus Howard Stern Rush Limbaugh National public radio FM radio in the 60 s Edwin Armstrong College Radio National public radio radio aka Frequency Modulation 1930 s Edwin Armstrong 60s no static classical musicaudiophiles 1967 nonduplication of signals 9 can t put same programing on FM as AM9 FM becomes voice of the common culture pop culture Ds very informal underground radio Howard Armstrong 1920s Tom Big Daddy Donahue 1967 9 famous disk jockey Teenagers O 0000 0 New word to describe new generation Increased social life and mobility New demographic to consider and appeal to Spend money rebellious About 64 of teens are reported to own radios and are estimated to have a potential yearly buying power of 8 billion 1949 First generation of babyboomers turn 13 in 1959 0 Alan Freed MoonDog 0 Father of Rock and Roll first concert 1952 o 1959 FTC files complaints against stations 0 1960 House of Rep holds hearing 0 1960 Grand jury charges 8 disc jockeys o no more pay for play 9 paying under table to play their songs this surfaced and was what cut Alan s career short 0 Top 40 0 Repeated popular music programming blocks promotions 0 Todd Storz and Gordon McLendon introduce Top 40 after noticing that teenagers were listening to the same songs on jukebox 0 Avg Hour mid 60s 73 time weather contest announcement 58 announcements of the station s call letters 22 commerials 35 news 12 songs 0 College Radio 0 O O O O Started in 20s 60s Class D licenses freeform radio like FM in the 60s alternative music 1979 no more class D 0 News radio all day long news 0 O O O 0 NPR O 1961 XETA in Tijuana Mexico 1962 KFWB LA goes all news 1965 WINS NY All News All the Timequot in very big cities couldn t become nation wide phenomenon Created in 1967 by Congress along with PBS to provide alternatives to commercial broadcasting o 1000stations o 27 million listeners Pacifica o 1948 Noncommercial licenses authorized for stations not affiliated with labor religion education or civic groups 0 Lewis Kimball Hill receive first license and begins challenging the status quo Talk Radio 1960s 0 Product differentiation 0 Seeking different audiences o Predictable and recurring 0 Cheap to produce 0 Targeting political frustration Narrowcasting marketing or dissemination of information via radio ro TV to a narrow audience rather than the broader public at large Aiming media messages at specific segments of the public defined by values preferences demographic attributes etc Telecommunication Act of 1996 o Deregulation 9 consolidation 0 Eliminated restrictions9homogenization 0 Market based policies profit based structure Commercials ABC Mutual Broadcasting System Early Developments 0 1832 Plateau and Stamfer invented the phenakistoscope followed by the Zoetrope o Talbot introduced negatives on paper in 1839 o In 1888 George Eastman invented the Kodak with transparent celluloid film Thomas Edison 0 Created an early movie camera called kinetograph o 1894 a kinetoscope parlor opened in NY 0 Edison later invented the vitascope for large audience in 1896 Lumiere brothers 0 First film makers 0 Louis and Auguste Lumiere developed a projection system so that more than one person could see images on a screen 0 Dec 28 1895 organized a showing of ten short movies in a Paris caf o Lumiere brothers films were earliest documentaries Move to Narrative 0 Films that tell stories 0 George Meeles I pioneered the move to narrative films I produced fairy tales and science fiction stories I including Joan of Arc Cinderella A trip to the Moon I need level of relatability and fantasy Edwin Porter 0 pioneered editing shooting scenes out of order and reassembling them 0 widely regarded as having made America s 1st narrative film The Life of an Amerian Fire arm 0 made The Great Train Robbery one of the most famous Public Viewing 0 Amusement arcades traveling carnivals wax museums vaudeville theater 0 Cheaper version nickelodeons only cost a nickel I 19071909 number of nickelodeons grew from 5910 thousand 0 Initially films imported from Europe 0 Birth of Hollywood 0 Edison tried to get patents for most movie technology and charged fees 0 Independents refused to pay feeds to Edison and his partners 0 Independents made Hollywood film industry 0 Industry moved from New York to LA in 1910s 9 weather and landscape better hills more action western 0 Feature films and stars 0 Consisted of several reels 0 Actors originally identified with a company the Biograph Girl 0 Public demand forced studios to identify and promote their stars 0 Mary Pickford was first big female star 0 Studio System 0 After 19912 major studios began to form 0 Studios operated as factories dominating the movie business at all levels production distribution and exhibition in a vertical integration of power and control 0 Studios tried to control production by contracting famous directors and stars after contract they were only able to work with that particular studio 0 Adolph Zukor Hungarian immigrant formed Paramount 0 Warner Brothers formed in 1913 0 William Fox started what became Twentieth Century Fox 0 Block Boking 0 Under the system of blockbooking film exhibitors had to rent new or marginal films with no stars in order to get access to hit movies 0 The big studios also bought up movie theaters so they could control exhibition aspect thus by 1912 Zuker s company owned 300 theaters o B films bad films 9 needed because families wen to see movies almost every weekend 0 Early Films and Genres 0 Most important director of this period was DW Griffith creator of 1915 Civil War Epic The Birth of a Nation 0 Slapstick was especially popular 0 Famous Actors Charlie Chaplin Harold Lloyd Buster Keaton Fatty Arbuckle o Westerns were also very popular in this period William Hart was one of he biggest Western stars 0 Classic Hollywood 0 Classic Hollywood cinema was developed and was characterized by I Intertitles gave info between shots I Color thru tinting I Cinematographic and editing techniques like crosscutting contiguity editing 180 degree system and the shotreverse shot I footnote After war industry expanded world market I footnote foreign film boring couldn t develop a big enough market 0 Movie palace 0 Middle and upper classes began to patronize the cinema nickelodeons gave way to huge luxurious venues known as movie or picture palaces 0 Strand Theatre opened in New York in 1914 and seated 3000 viewers 0 Air conditioning started in 1917 Talkies 0 Movie attendance climbed steadily thru 19205 0 Period saw development of sound Warner Brothers production The jazz Singer 1927 first talkie a silent film interspersed with musical numbers and a brief dialogue 19301945 Golden Age of Movies 0 The Majors 0 After downturn during Depression movie attendance picked up again in 19405 0 1946 industry s alltime peak attendance year 90 million people went to movies each week o by this time industry controlled by Five major studios I Paramount I Lowes MGM I 20th century Fox I Warner Bros I RKO o Majors were vertically integrated companies that owned theater chains and had international distribution operations 0 Companies that weren t vertically integrated Universal Columbia and United Artists Hollywood studio system 0 Majors supplied A pictures for the big theaters o Minors supplied the extra films needed and catered to smaller theaters 0 Some independents made prestige films 0 Others made B films Changes 0 Better soundrecording 0 Intro of powerful dollys pan tilt and track shot 0 Special effects as in king kong wizard of oz 0 Major genres I Musical screwball comedy horror social problem films gangster film film noir war film 0 Major directors Charlie Chaplin City Lights Orson Welles Citizen Kane William Wyler Wuthering Heights 19451960 Changes 0 1948 ruling in US v Paramountgive up practice of block booking would only allow people to watch A pictures if also rented or watched B pictures 0 TV became popular Attendance fell from 98 million viewers per week in 1946 to 47 million in 1957 19505 New jersey development of suburbs didn t want to go to movies because too far people stayed home and watched TV TV was eating upquot the market Classic style survived Famous movies Singing in the Rain Spartacus Major Directors john Ford William Wyler Howard Hughes Elia Kazan Nicholas Ray In response I Movies became more colorful in response to TV I Wider images and screens were introduced for more dramatic effects 0 footnote at this time ATampT controlled phone industry monopoly 00 0000 19601980 60 s 0 movie attendance continued to drop 0 The Majors went for roadshows appeals to everyone family like the Sound of Music How the West was Won 0 Studios began to innovate wth genres and styles 0 Period saw risqu fare like Pillow Talk and The Graduate Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid Bonnie and Clyde 0 Movies and Radio FM become risk takers get creative etc 70 s 0 change in tax laws that benefited the studios 9 bigger budget to invest in movie makes better movies 0 era of blockbuster The Godfather The Exorcist jaws Rocky 0 Famous directors Martin Scorsese Francis Ford Coppola Steven Spielberg Stanley Kubrick George Lucas Woody Allen Robert Altman After 80s 0 Changes I Rise of satellite and cable TV and VCRs I By 2000 home video yielded 20 billion worldwide three times that of the North American boxoffice income I Change from video cassettes to DVDs to Blue Ray 0 Consolidation I Film companies became part of huge entertainment empires Walt Disney News Corp Time Warner Sony I Globalization 0 Mega Movie I Movies that open in one or two thousand theaters run for months I Spinoff into other forms of merchandizing and sell globally I Avg cost of a film rose from 14 million 1980 to 60 million 2000 I Ex jurassic Park Star Wars Independence Day Titanic I Big Directors Steven Speilberg George Lucas James Cameron Oliver Stone 0 Multiplexes I Megaplexes with multiple screens I Economies of scale I Hedge against the many ops 0 Independent Filmmaking I Rise of the independent filmmaking due to cheap technology as opposed to film I New Line Cinema Miramax Fox Searchlight Digital Age 0 Film now produced on HD or digital cinema than there is being produced an analog film 0 3D Technology 0 max and 3D theaters Movie moguls Basic facts about movies discussed in class 0 O O Lumiere shorts Great Train Robbery Al olson
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