Diamonds Are Forever Part 4, Digestion Part 1
Diamonds Are Forever Part 4, Digestion Part 1 1005-11
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This 11 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Charlene Scavone on Saturday September 20, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005-11 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/20/14
91614 If Diamonds Are Forever Why Aren t Fossil Fuels part 4 Sterols Are Vital to Life Processes sterols are a class of lipids that contain four hydrocarbon rings fused together sterols only differ in the number type and position of functional groups and in the carbon side chains linked to the hydrocarbon rings cholesterol testosterone estrogen and Vitamin D are all sterols STEROLS s on CH3 Four fused hydrocarbon Testosterone Cholesterol rings basic structure of all sterols Discover Biology Sle Figure 521 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc Cholesterol cholesterol is a vital component of cell membranes and is the starting molecule of many other sterols and steroid hormones Phospholipid monolayer 6 Esteri ed cholesterol 39 39 39 8 3 7 7 39 v 39 I V 139 I f I Unesteri ed J i A i cholesterol 39 39 Apolipoprotein Discover Biology 5e Unnumbered 7 p185 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc cholesterol can be manufactured in the liver and the ingestion of too much cholesterol can lead to cardiovascular disease cholesterol is divided into two groups HDL high density lipoprotein and LDL low density lipoprotein HDL is responsible for removing lipids and taking them back to the liver while LDL is responsible for bringing lipids to the bloodstream too much LDL can cause a buildup of lipids in the blood which then become arterial plaque Trans Fat trans fats increase LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream thereby increasing the risk of heart disease they can be found in any food but particularly in partially hydrogenated oils Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids nucleotides are the building blocks of hereditary material there are two types of nucleic acid RNA DNA NUCLEOTIDES AND NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA molecules incorporate I i EH2 N E CH T HC N C T o c T CH H m 39 H Adenine A Thymine T HOCH2 o Ribose and deoxyribose are H H H H both vecarbon sugars They differ by only one oxygen atom OH ff quot2 N HN c C NVC CH It H I CH C C H2N N Ill 0 T H H Guanine G Cytosine C oH EH O Ribose V C HOCH2 o oH Hui V 2 o C N CH H H H H l H OH H UfaII U Deoxyribose V 7 while RNA molecules I N Twisting of the two nucleotide i iquot rP rate he polymers forms the DNA quotquotquot l bafe quot39aquot39 mead double helix F3 K i v i gt 13 Discover Biology 5e Figure 522 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded they are built from different nitrogenous bases RNA is made from a different sugar Digestion part 1 Vitamins needed in tiny amounts water solubleingested in water Cs and Bs fat solubleingested in fat food A D E K we are only able to manufacture Vitamin D most Vitamins must be consumed humans are among only a few species that cannot manufacture Vitamin C Summary of FunctionsVitamins Vitamin Bs assist reactions or are reactants Vitamin C maintains tissue Vitamin A eyesight and tissue maintenance Vitamin D calcium absorption and bone growth Vitamin E protects cell membrane Vitamin K clotting Essential Minerals macrominerals sodium calcium iron magnesium phosphorus trace elements make up less than 1 of body weight only small amounts are needed but they are important functionally ie iodine is Vital to thyroid function Nutrients nutrients play critical roles to provide chemical building blocks provide energy facilitate reactions animals must consume nutrients from other organisms they are released by digestion 91814 Digestion part 2 Strategies for Growth photoautotroph organisms that use light energy to make own food chemoautotroph organisms that make own food from chemicals all prokaryotes photoheterotrophs organisms that use light and other organisms for food chemoheterotroph uses other organisms chemical reactions for food we and all other animals are chemoheterotrophs DIGESTION AN OVERVIEW Food Digestion Usable nutrients Absorption transportation unabsobane in bloodstream materia flil1 ff n i7i r Discover Biology 5e Figure 271 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc All Living Cells Require Nutrients metabolism is all the chemical reactions going on in your body metabolic pathways assemble and disassemble organisms enzymes are biomolecules that speed up chemical reactions by acting as biological catalsysts ANABOLISM CATABOLISM C energy C J E G ADP Q Eg ADP 3 Monomers anabolic reactions dehydration synthesis making larger polymers from monomers catabolic reactions hydrolysis adding water to break down complex molecules to release monomers The Structure of Enzymes very speci c for reactants three dimensional shape determines function reduces energy required for a reaction by changing shape an active site is a region where the substrate binds an induced fit is when an active site molds around the substrate Substrates bind to the active site x Active site Substrates A 3 0 Enzyme facilitates the reaction Catalysis Induced t the enzyme changes shape as 3 Product is substrates lock intoquot reieased the active site gt U The enzyme is not permanently changed by the reaction and can be recycled building up IQ CD Products Su bstrate breaking down Absorption in the Digestive System absorbed monocarbohydrates proteins amino acids monoglycerides and fatty acids The Human Digestive System the human digestive system is essentially a tubular passageway with glands and epithelial cells lining both physical and chemical digestion occurs mouth salivary glands teeth tongue esophagus sphincter stomach pyloric sphincter small intestine liver gall bladder large intestine rectum DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The salivary glands secrete T saliva which starts digestion of starches Mouth Salivary glands oral cavity i Esophagu Liver rThe stomach produces acid and proteindigesting The liver makes bile enzymes which helps digest fats Gallbladder Pancreas The gallbladder stores quot19 Pancfeas Se etes and releases bile kdi9e5tiVe equotZYme5 39 A ii Colon Small Intestine D 39 The colon absorbs water and The quot3quot imestine minerals Harmless bacteria secretes digestive living in the colon ferment equotzV e5 and ab5 quotb5 Anus undigested food and produce nutrients certain vitamins Discover Biology 5e Figure 278 201 2 W W Norton amp Company Inc Mouth and Pharynx teeth mastication chewing grinding food salivary glands produce salivary amalayse to break down food further taste buds on the tongue trigger which enzymes should be produced in the stomach avor is a combination of taste bud sensory input and smell some nutrients are absorbed in the mouth Esophagus mostly for transportation purposes from the mouth to the stomach peristalsis wavelike contractions to move food in one direction acid re ux or GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter does not close properly results in re ux and heartbum Stomach rugae folds of the stomach allow it to expand and for food to be moved around within pyloric sphincter moves food to the small intestine hydrochloric acid acid produced by the stomach to lower pH and denature proteins pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins mucus protects the stomach lining from the acid only 10 of nutrients are absorbed within the stomach Small Intestine secretes digestive enzymes the pancreas helps by secreting a basic substance to neutralize the acidic chyme technical term for partially digested food coming from the stomach carbohydrases lipases proteinases ABSORPTIVE SURFACE IN THE SMALL INTESTINE small intestine Brush Villus Eplilthelial Capillary Microvilli ce Extensive folding of the lining of the small intestine creates a very la rge absorptive surface the villi microvilli and brush border of the small intestine all allow it to increase its surface area within a small space and increase its absorption ability the liver produces bile to digest fats bile pulls lipids which clump up due to being hydrophobic apart so they can be accessed by the lipases bile is stored within the gall bladder
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