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Example Notes

by: Sanobar Shaikh

Example Notes

Sanobar Shaikh

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sanobar Shaikh on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Johns Hopkins University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Lecture 1 January 27, 2016 Week 1 Wednesday  Overview of Syllabus th  Introduction to the Historiography of Science in the 18  Century o Traditional appraisals:  Relatively dull interlude between 16 ­17  and 19  centuries  “Consolidation “ of scientific revolution  Not requiring a lot of originality of effort, not worthy of special  attention or effort o More recent accounts  Integration of scientific knowledge into western culture as a major  development  Requires special effort to adopt and accept th  Due to emergence of culture of 18  century  Original scientific contributions  Contributions in field of chemistry  Institutional and organizational change  Spread of national academies of sciences, modeled after  French academies  Relations between science and the enlightenment  Enlightenment characterized by strong critical thinking  Neglect of tradition in 18  century is a paradox th  Science in the 18  century was not a specialized activity in  the way that it became after the 19  century   “Science” is an anachronistic term, more like natural  philosophy o [Quotation]  Science in the 19  Century o Major changes in various aspects of the scientific enterprise  New theories in physics and biology  Discipline formation  Research university adopted vs. national academies of the  th 18  century  A second scientific revolution?  Not exactly a period of change or transformation o “Natural philosophy” becomes “Science”  [Quotation]  Whewell introduced the term “scientist”  Science is becoming a more specialized activity than natural  philosophy  Natural Philosophy—a system of concepts mediating between  facts and philosophy; Religious aspect, nature and nature’s gods o Relation to (imperial) state and industry  Imperialism and struggle for colonies in the 18  century   Science is relied onto to administrate the large empires  Provides access to new resources during this time as well  Electrical and chemical industry—organic chemistry, electrical  engineering, physics, etc. o National competition  Nationalism played a huge role in attributing credit to new  discoveries  Competition between European countries in schools of science  Certain amount of prestige attached to this th   20  Century Science o Paradox: science of 20  century has remain understudied despite its  quantitative and qualitative importance  Technically demanding (for both historians and readers) th  George Sarton—wrote an essay about the history of 20   century science, mastering contents of science is a problem  of historians when trying to write about this century  Problems of sources  Scientific research classified, not publicly available  (nuclear physics)  Problem of proximity  How can it be applied to other fields  Large Hadron Collider, CERN (Geneva)—huge amount of  contributors   Themes of the course o Episodes in the development of science  Chemical revolution of the late 18  century (characterized by the  discovery of molecular oxygen)  Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and the  development of social Darwinism and social science  Institutional revolution of physics and chemistry in the 19  century  New physics of the early 20  century (Einstein, Bohr, etc.)  Mendelian genetics  o Science in history  Cultural movements: Enlightenment, Romanticism  Economy: e.g. industrial revolution, industrial research  Politics and the state: empire and war o Overarching questions  Tension between pursuit of scientific knowledge for its own sake  and development of applications  Science and technology ever more closely intertwined?  Term, “technoscience”  How does organization of science affect knowledge production?  Geographical shift from Europe to the United States


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