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Week 5 Notes

by: Marissa Reyes-Hernandez

Week 5 Notes Psych 1301

Marissa Reyes-Hernandez
Introduction to Psychology
Randolph Taylor

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Week 5 Notes with examples, Good Luck!!!
Introduction to Psychology
Randolph Taylor
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
o Overviews topics in this chapter 0 Classical conditioning O Operant conditioning 0 Biological cognitive components of learning 0 Observational learning 0 What do we mean by Learning I Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors 0 Types of Learning 0 Classical conditioning learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an events to which we have a reaction Operant conditioning changing behavior choices in response to consequences Cognitive learning acquiring new behavior and information through observation and information rather than by direct experience 0 Behaviorism O The term behaviorism was used by John B Watsons and proponent of classical conditioning as well as by BF skinner a leader in research about operant conditioning 0 Both scientists believed the mental process were much less important than observing behavior as a foundation for psychological science 0 Associative learning classical conditioning 0 How it work after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence we associate those stimuli with each other 0 Result our natural response to one stimulus now can be triggered by the new predictive stimulus 0 After Repetition I Stimulus See lightning I Response Covert ears to avoid sound 0 Ivan Pavlov39s Discovery 0 While studying salivation in dogs Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli such as 0 Just seeing the food 0 Seeing the dish 0 Seeing the person who brought the food 0 Just hearing the persons footsteps 0 Before Conditioning 0 Neutral stimulus o A stimulus which does not trigger a response 0 Before Conditioning 0 Unconditioned stimulus and response 0 A stimulus which triggers a response naturally before Without any conditioning 0 During Conditioning 0 The bell tone NS is repeatedly presented with the food US 0 After Conditioning 0 The of begins to salivate upon hearing the toneneutra stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus The UR and the CR are the same response triggered by different events The difference is whether conditioning was necessary for the response to happen The NS and the CS are the same stimulus The different is whether the stimulus triggers the conditioned response Find the US UR NS CS CR in the following 0 The nurse says quotThis won39t hurt a bitquot just before stabbing you with a needle The next time you hear quotThis won39t hurtquot you cringed in fear Response with a cringed didn t need to learn association Acquisition O Refers to the initial stage of learningconditioning 0 What gets quotacquired o The association between a neutral stimulus NS and an unconditioned stimulus US 0 How can we tell that acquisition has occurred 0 The UR now gets triggered by a CS drooling now gets triggered by a bell 0 Timing o For the association to be acquired the natural stimulus NS Needs to repeatedly appear before the unconditioned stimulus US The bell must come right before the food Extinction O Refers to the diminishing of a conditioned responsegt If the US FOOD stops appearing with the CS BELL the CR decreases Spontaneous Recovery return of the CR 0 After a Cr salivation has been conditioned and then extinguished 0 Following a rest period present the tone alone might lead to a spontaneous recovery a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further conditioning o If the CS tone is again presented repeatedly without the US the CR becomes extinct agaIn Generalization and Discrimination 0 Ivan Pavlov conditioned dogs to drool when rubbed they also drooled when scratched o Verbalization refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimui I More stuff makes you drool 0 Ivan Pavlov conditioned dogs to drool at bells of certain pitch smithy different pitches did not trigger drooling o Discrimination refers to the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimuli preventing generalization 39 Less stuff makes you drool John B Watson and Classical Condition Playing with Fear O In 1920 9 month old little Albert was not afraid of rats 0 John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was present to albert 0 Albert acquired a fear of rats and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things Before Condition 0 NS Rat no fear 0 US Steel bar bit with hammer UR fear 0 NS US Natural reflex fear 0 CS Conditioned reflex fear Higherorder Conditioning O The learned association NS US can be transferred to a similar stimulus CS CS 0 Little Albert generalized his fear response from the rat to other furry animals Associative Learning 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Child associates his response Behavior with consequences 0 Child learns to repeat behaviors saying quotpleasequot which were followed by desirable results cookie 0 Child learns to avoid behaviors yelling gummy which were followed by undesirable results scolding or loss of dessert Operant Conditioning 0 Involves adjusting to the consequences of our behaviors 0 So we can easily learn to do more of what works and less or what doesn39t work 0 We may smile more at work after this repeatedly gets us bigger tips 0 We learn how to ride a bike using the strategies that dot make us crash Operant and Classical Conditioning are different forms of associative Learning 0 Classical condition 0 Involves respondent behavior reflexive auto reactions such as fear or craving 0 These reactions to unconditioned stimuli US become associated with neutral thengtgtgt conditioned stimuli o The experimental neutral stimulus repeatedly pressed the respondent behavior and eventually triggers that behaviors O Operant conditioning o Involves operant behavior chosen behaviors which quotoperatequot on the environment 0 These behaviors become associated with consequences which punish increase the operant behavior 0 The experiment consequence stimulus repeatedly follows the operant behaviors and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior Thorndike s Law of Effect 0 Placed cats in puzzle box they were rewarded with food and freedom when they solves the puzzle 0 Thorndike noted that the cats took less time to escape after the repeated trials and rewards O The law of effect states that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely BF Skinner Behavioral Control 0 Saw potential for exploring and using Edward Thorndike39s principles much more broadly He wondered 0 How can we more carefully measure the effects of consequences on chosen behavior What else can creatures be taught to do controlling consequences What happens when we change the timing of reinforcement o The operant Chamber I Pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning 39 The operant chamber often called quotthe skinner Boxquot allowed detailed tracking of rates of behaviors change in response to different rates of reinforcement Reinforcement O Refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur Reinforces 0 Positive reinforcement o Encourages behavior by adding a desirable O Negative reinforcement o Encourages behavior by removing an aversive unpleasant stimulus 0 Positive example You drink a couple beets and feel happy and relaxed o The addition of the happyrelaxed feeling makes you more likely to drink beer in the future Negative example You take an aspirin your headache goes away 0 The removal of pain makes you more likely to take aspirin again O In both cases the behavior is likely to reoccur 0 Why we might work for money 0 If we repeatedly introduce a neutral stimulus before a reinforce this stimulus acquires the power to be used as a reinforce O A primary reinforce is a stimulus that meets a basic need or otherwise is intrinsically desirable such as food sex fun attention or power 0 A secondary conditioned reinforce is a stimulus such as money which has become associated with a primary reinforce money buys foods builds power 0 A Human Talent Responding to Delayed Reinforces o If you give a dog a treat ten minutes after they did a trick you ll be reinforcing whatever they did right before the treat Dogs respond to immediate reinforcement o Humans can link a consequence to a behavior even if they aren t linked sequentially in time The piece of paper money can be a delayed reinforce paid a month later yet still reinforcing if we link it to our performance 0 Delaying gratification a skill related to impulse control enables longerterm goal setting 0 How often should we reinforce 0 Do we need to give a reward every single time Or is that even best o In continuous reinforcement giving a reward after the target every single time o The subject acquires the desired behavior quickly o In partialintermittent reinforcement giving rewards part of the time o The target behavior takes longer to be acquired but persists longer without reward less prone to extinction 0 Which Schedule of Reinforcement is this Ratio or Interval Fixed or Variable o Rat gets food every third time it presses the lever 0 Getting paid weekly no matter how much work is done 0 Getting paid for every ten boxes you make 0 Hitting a jackpot sometimes on the slot machine O 0 Winning sometimes on the lottery you play once a day Checking cell phone all day sometimes getting a text Buy eight pizzas get the next one free Fundraiser averages one donation for every eight houses visited Kid has tantrum parents sometimes give in Repeatedly checking mail until paycheck arrives Operant Effect Punishment 0 Punishments have the opposite effects of reinforcement These consequences make the target behavior less likely to occur in the future When is punishment effective 0 Punishment works best in natural settings when we encounter punishing consequences from actions such as reaching into a fire severity of punishments is not as helpful as making the punishments immediate and certain Summary Types of Consequences O 0 Cognitive Learning Latent Learning I Rats appear to form cognitive maps They can learn a maze just by wandering I Latent learning refers to skills or knowledge gained from experience but not apparent in behavior until rewards are given I Latent learning Learning Rewards and Motivation 0 O O Intrinsic motivation refers to the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake The reward is internalized as a feeling of satisfaction Extrinsic motivation refers to doing a behavior to receive rewards from others Intrinsic motivation can be reduced by external rewards Learning by Observation 0 Can we like the rats exploring the maze with no reward learn new behaviors and skills without a direct experience of conditioning 0 Yes and one of the ways we do so is by observational learning watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience 0 Skills required mirroring being able to picture ourselves doing the same action and cognition noticing consequences and association 0 Albert Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 1961 O 0 Children watched adults behave aggressively with an inflated doll These kids were then put in a room with toys and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Children who saw adults being non aggressive or be punished for their aggression were less likely to copy the behaviors o Mirroring in the Brain 0 When we watch others doing or feeling something neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves These neurons are referred to as mirror neurons and they fire only to reflect the actions or feelings of others 0 Mirroring Plus Vicarious Reinforcement O Mirroring enables observational learning we cognitively practice a behavior just by watching it If you combine this with vicarious reinforcement we are even more likely to get imitation Monkey a saw Monkey B getting a banana after pressing four symbols Monkey A then pressed the same four symbols even though the symbols were in different locations


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