Week 5 of Philosophy
Week 5 of Philosophy PHIL 1000 - 01
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PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Philosophy 1000 Sharon Street Basic Conditions for Evolution o Inheritance many traits can be passed on 0 Genetic variation variation in traits due to mutation and recombination 0 Reproductive Advantage Some traits better enable an organism to survive 0 When these conditions are obtained populations change over time Those better equipped will live those who aren t will die 0 This change is called evolution 0 The process during this is called natural selection There are adaptive explanations of the existence of a trait o Traits with adaptive explanations are called adaptors Street s Plan 0 Nothing matters independent of us thinking they matter 0 She appeals to evolution that values are not minddependent 0 She believes you should give up your belief if you know it comes from somewhere illegitimate o Undermining Genealogies provide no reason to think a belief is true 0 Hayes Example I Suppose you know that Hayes was the 20th President of the United States Then your friend laughs at you and tells you that s what the hypnotist told you to believe last night Due to finding out the illegitimate nature of your belief you lose confidence in it o Vindicating Genealogies provide reason to think a belief is true 0 Suspicious Man Example I A stranger comes up and asks for directions and you get the feeling he s up to no good Later you remember you saw that man on an episode of America s Most Wanted You are then reaffirmed in your suspicions and more confident in your belief Street s Master Principle 0 Does learning the genealogy of a belief give you a good reason to think your belief is true 0 If it does it s Vindicating o If it doesn t and there s no other supporting info the genealogy is undermining Most Basic Evaluative Beliefs If an action would promote one s survival health or help a child then those are reasons to perform the action o If some act altruistically that s a reason to praise them We have good reason to think these beliefs are adaptations First we must ask what these beliefs are about 0 Are they about a kind of mindindependent value I Mindindependent A fact that is valuable independent of our beliefs 0 Or are they a minddependent value I Minddependent A fact where it s ultimately our beliefs that make the thing valuable To apply Street s master principle we must plug in value Suppose value is mindindependent 0 Then she thinks we have an undermining genealogy for our basic evaluative beliefs 0 We have a tendency to form beliefs about objects around us which are adaptations I They re adaptations because they re true and preserve our survival 0 Ex We see a giant hole We assume it s a deep hole and we must avoid it to preserve our life 0 Does the truth of a belief matter to whether or not it s an adaptation or is it that my belief moves the will to produce action that leads to reproductive advantage If value is minddependent however there s no problem according to Street Street s Argument A Broad Outline 1 Suppose values are mindindependent Then the accuracy of our basic evaluative beliefs is irrelevant to their genealogy That means that learning about their genealogy doesn t give one a reason to think beliefs are accurate That means these beliefs are undermining genealogies So if values are mindindependent we should doubt our values after learning their evolutionary genealogy We shouldn t stop believing our values Therefore our values are minddependent