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Week 4 of History Notes

by: William Bartek

Week 4 of History Notes HIST 1500 - 01

William Bartek
Discovering World History
Autumn Dolan

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Week 4 of notes in History 1500 covering Classical Greece, Hellenistic Greece, and the early Roman Republic
Discovering World History
Autumn Dolan
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Autumn Dolan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Discovering World History in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
History 1500 Week 4 of History Notes Classical Greece Rise of Athens amp Age of Pericles o Delian League 0 150 city states joined to push back Persians 0 Athens quickly takes control of the league 0 Athenian Democracy 0 Pericles 495 429 BCE I Athens used Delian money for personal gain I Sparta amp Corinth begin complaining o Peloponnesian League 0 Sparta creates a rival league to fight the power of Athens and the Delian League Peloponnesian War 431 404 BCE o Spartan strategy land army with specialized Spartan fighters o Athenian resilience cut off naval trade to Sparta 0 Final battles resolve around Persia Persia provides Sparta a navy to fight Athens Enemy of my enemy is my friend Athens breaks out with disease while under siege Alcibiades Pericles son who joins Sparta Final battles in Sicily Spartan Victory 0000 Classical Greek Culture Women 0 Legal rights 0 Dependence on husbands and fathers 0 Restricted in public not allowed to go to market boulle etc 0 Does run the household though 0 Philosophical Status 0 quotWomen were substandard men incapable of holding probable thought 0 Hetairai Intellectual concubines or escorts used for public events 0 Aspasia 470 400 BCE Hetairai of Pericles wrote some of his literature 0 NonElites 0 Lower class women could run a shop interact leave the house Classical Greek Culture Slavery 0 Athens 0 13 of the population were slaves 0 Foreign servants o Slave society bolstered the other classes and their identity 0 quotWe re poor but at least we aren t slaves Religion 0 Dark age religion no real evidence 0 Homerian Epic Illiad amp Odyssey Gave 12 basic gods Zeus 0 City states had independent local gods as well 0 Mystic cults secret meetings 0 Cult of Dionysus God of crops gave a good harvest for farmers Intellectual Life 0 Drama and Literature 0 Highly praised by Greek society Rock stars of the Greek world 0 Safest way to criticize government 0 Tragedies most popular highlighted man s poor decisions and what not to do 0 Comedies were focused on government criticism 0 History 0 Herodetus undermines deities o Thucydides I Historian of the Peloponnesian War I Abandons gods entirely and looks only at human nature Scientific Thought 0 Intellectual exchanges o Rational causes 0 Cosmology o Atonomists o Democritus 460 370 BCE o No gods involved demythicized science PhHosoghy Sophists Socrates 469 399 BCE Plato 428 347 BCE o Platonic forms can t handle reality so quotwe just know what things are Aristotle 0 Father of Inductive Reasoning minute gt big idea Hellenistic Greece Rise of Macedon o Macedonian society 0 Primitive compared to Athens 0 Farmersmilitaristic populace o Hereditary monarchy 0 Politics 0 Began to urbanize 0 Establish friendship with Persia 0 Greek influence 0 Love Greek poets and playwrights 0 Phillip 359 336 BCE Brilliant military leader 0 Reformed Macedonian society 0 Gains loyalty of the soldiers by paying them in raids 0 Military innovations amp tactics infantry holds enemy in place while cavalry flanks Macedonian Expansion o Conquests and Alliances 0 Athens becomes fearful of Macedonian expansion 0 Ends the Poleis Age of Greece 0 Persian campaign 0 Assimilate Greek culture as they expand 0 Take on Persian vendetta to solidify their Greekness o Phillip s Death 0 Assassinated at daughter s wedding 0 No real heir apparent Alexander the Great 356 323 BCE 0 Rise to power 0 Alexander s rise attributed to his mother Olympia 0 Killed off all rivals to the throne 0 Immediately takes up his father s Persian campaign 0 Alexander is not a diplomat 0 Empire takes up 10000 square miles 0 Takes on quotGreat King of PersiaPharaoh of Egypt titles o Mesopotamia all the way to India 0 Death 0 Caught Indian fever got drunk and died 0 After death no one man could keep the empire together Hellenistic Monarchies o Ptolemy got Egypt 0 Selucus got all of Persia o Antigonus got Macedonia Governance 0 Monarchy 0 See kingship as paternal rule much like the Mesopotamians and Persians 0 General empire infrastructure as seen before 0 Professional armies only way to keep order 0 Administration 0 Revert to oligarchy of the king and his inner circle holding all the power Citizenship 0 Citizenship difficult to pin down 0 Women gain more citizenship than previous Greek rule 0 Women got education on par with men elites only 0 Arsinoe 276 270 BCE QueenPharaoh of Egypt 0 Hellenistic women no longer hidden away Responses 0 Macedonian response pissed off and exhausted 0 Cultural and social assimilation o Prefer to remain separate rather than assimilate o Conflicts on how to blend east and west 0 Language barrier Aramaic v Greek 0 Alienation Natives excluded from Hellenistic government 0 Zoroastrianism o Conquered Persians cling to religious identity 0 Look for messiah to save them from Greek oppression o Maccabean Revolt 167 160 BCE 0 Jewish revolt on Selucid oppressors Election for priesthood 2 guys steal and bribe to get the spot Hebrews mad at this and revolt Maccabees win revolt against Selucids OOOO Gave them an autonomous kingdom Assimilation o Hellenistic Judaism 0 Hebrew language only knew Greek 0 Septuagint o Syncretism Jews participate more in Greek culture Science 0 Alexandria o Cosmopolitan for people of all types 0 Euclid 300 BCE Geometric proofs and math philosopher o Archimedes 287 212 BCE PhHosophy 0 With Poleis gone how do we deal with identity and ethics 0 Aristotle and Telos 0 Start as small acorn and grow into oak tree 0 Our potential was happiness 0 End of the Polis o Epicureanism Deal with stress through withdrawal enjoy simple life 0 Stoicism Just deal with anxiety life is painful deal with it o Cynicism Everything about life is worthless withdrawal from all life Roman Republic Italian Peninsula 2 hours east coast to WESt 0 Mountain range passable not hindering like Greek 0 Rome 0 Starts as 7 hills surrounding a swamp Neighbors o Surrounded by other tribes o Greeks and Etruscans are the big 2 Etruscan Influences 0 Religion 0 3 main Roman gods are actually Etruscan 0 City Planning 0 Etruscans started road building architecture and metallurgy 0 Cultural symbols 0 Idea of a throne 0 Gender hierarchy fairly balanced between men and women Monarchy o Overthrow of Etruscans c 509 BCE o Etruscans take advantage of Roman elite o Romans revolt o Rape of Lucretia o Etruscan prince rapes an elite Roman s wife 0 Lucretia kills herself after telling her family what happened 0 Birth of the Republic 0 Want a government with shared values Roman Republic 0 Government 0 Consuls 2 men 0 Senate 300 aristocratic men 0 Centuriate Assembly comparable to Boulle o Priesthood o Continues civic rituals protecting Roman virtues and heritage 0 NOT political figures 0 Oligarchy o Heavily balanced towards the elite o Struggle of Orders 0 Foundation of Western law 0 Patricians aristocrats o Plebians lowermiddle class 0 494 287 BCE o Plebians complain about discrimination I More political rights for plebs I Discrimination in the courts I Tired of caste system 0 Tribunes elected in pairs from plebs veto power 0 Plebian assembly no legal authority yet 0 Consul opened up to plebians still requires incredible wealth though Twelve Tables 0 Written law code c 450 BCE 0 Provides legal procedure to plebs 0 Foundation of civil law ius civilis Republic of Virtue o Simplicity based society 0 Moral responsibility 0 Gravitas sense of seriousness and stoicness o Pietas Respect for tradition and ancestors 0 Justice respect for the law and heavy punishments to those who break it Roman Society 0 Family at the core 0 Paterfamilias father held all the power in the family 0 Patron and client relationship 0 High class patron gives advice and loans to a poor client 0 Early version of lobbying patron gets client s vote in office Women 0 Marriage 0 Cum manu When you marry all legal authority passes to your husband 0 Sine manu Women stayed wards of their fathers their whole life I Women can leave husband in sine manu o Oppian Law 195 BCE o quotThe moment women become your equals they will be your superiors Cato Roman Expansion 0 Italian Peninsula 0 Alliances and wars 0 Granted citizenship more openly than Greeks o Pyrrhus of Epirus o Spent so much money fighting Rome had to withdraw o quotPhyrric Victory Punic Wars 0 Carthage rich port town 0 Outbreak of war 0 Allies drag Rome and Carthage into fighting each other 0 First Punic War 264 241 BCE Peace treaty sharing Sicily 0 Second Punic War 218 201 BCE Hannibal comes in from the North 0 Rome resorts to guerrilla warfare and wins 0 Third Punic War 149 146 BCE Rome razes Carthage salts the earth Expansion and Political Order o Equestrians 0 Military middle class begins asking for rights 0 Roman Slavery o 33 of the population 0 nhuman treatment 0 Slave Rebellions I Sparticus 73 71 BCE Hellenistic Identity and Culture 0 Reputation of quotbig brother like America everyone calls Rome for help 0 Heavy Greek influence despite hating the Greek identity 0 Art 0 Veristic Portraiture


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