The origins of the Japanese language and the Economic Miracle
The origins of the Japanese language and the Economic Miracle ANTH 1784
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Ariza on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1784 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Gabriella Lukacs in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Japanese Society in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
The Origins of Japanese Language Competing Theories O Ataic language family Mongolian Turkish 0 Austronesian languages Polynesian 0 Korean Japanese Writing Two ways 0 Western style horizontal from top to bottom 0 Traditional Japanese style vertical from right to left Japanese Writing System Consists of three different character sets 0 Kanji 0 Two syllabaries that are together called Kana Printing Japanese Characters was extremely difficult Formal and Informal Language Complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary 0 Indicate status of the speaker listener and reader Pronunciation Japanese uses relatively few sounds but accents are an issue Women s Language Some argue it evolved in the fourth century Others claim that it developed in 1800s 0 Meiji era served as catalyst O Invention of traditionsquot in wake of social change Feminine language originally considered vulgar language 0 Something lower class would use Rapid modernization helped normalize women s language Changes were overwhelming so the Japanese sought out traditions they could hold on to 0 This something was feminine language Women s language reinforced after World War II with the emergence of the Nihonjinron Inoue Miyako Mourning the loss of women s language normalizes O The idea of gendered differences 0 Particular gender roles 0 Definition of modern Japanese family as middle class gt Women s language is an emergent norm produced by 0 Teachers 0 Writers 0 Scholars 0 Norm conscious readers speakers listener gt She couldn t tell what women s language was but she could tell what it was not 1 Reader s columns in the newspaper a Do young women use rough language i As a way to cope with gender discrimination ii To compete with men in the job market Conclusion of opinion pieces Women are individually responsible for not speaking women s language 2 Public opinion Surveys a Always productive of social reality because they confirm common sense i Questions confirm a position that there are gender differences in speech ii Survey done in Tokyo confirms what constitutes standard Japanese speech 3 Linguistic Research a Scholarship that studies the changes in women s language proposes the existing of women s language i Do not ask 1 Why its not heterogeneous 2 Why dominant gender role for women is always housewife 3 Personal responsibility a Women use polite language to demonstrate their status and dignity 4 National Language council a Majority of people prefer gender differences in language use The Japanese Economic Miracle 10 growth rate until the early 1970s Growth rate slows down but remains steady Factors that explain the economic miracle 0 State driven industrial policy 0 The Keiretsu system 0 Lifetime employment VVV State Driven Industrial Policy Capitalistic economy coordinated by the government Tax incentives to control private sectors The Keiretsu System Horizontal VVVV VVV 0 Companies like Mitsubishi which have their own banking system insurance produces cars etc Vertical 0 Large auto firms have their own suppliers System of Lifetime Employment Form of job security Makes workers committed to their companies Parents aspired that for their kids that they went to school grew up and got a job Corporate culture 0 Very similar to the UStype offices Salarymen 0 Under lifetime employment system received steady salary men were loyal in return to their company Father as sodai gomi oversized garbage 0 Children are alienated from their fathers O Strained fatherdaughter relationships especially Thomas Rohlen For Harmony and Strength Lifetime employment Quitting the problem of perseverance Entrance examination checking family background Employee s education background 0 Also medical background do they have any diseases 0 Dying from being overworked exists in Japan Hiring foreign employees is rare and they usually have to make sure they have families because having families more responsible Hiring females employees connections kone have connections Someone quitting seen as marital divorce Retirement at 55 and then they transfer to another job with less responsibilities for the last 10 years of their working career Women must resign when they get married 0 Give birth to children 0 No daycares available etc so women have to care for their children 0 Sometimes they reenter the work force when their children are independent 0 Women who resign open up spots for younger women who would get less of a salary
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