Book Notes Ch 8 - 9
Book Notes Ch 8 - 9 JOUR 3741
U of M
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbi Stark on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 3741 at University of Minnesota taught by Jennifer Williams in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Diversity and Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Book Notes Ch 8 9 Chapter 8 REPRESENTATIONS OF GENDER IN TV FILM AND MUSIC VIDEOS Bechdel Test 1 Does the movie have at least 2 women in it 2 Do they ever talk to each other 3 Is that conversation about something besides a man 4 Do the women have names 152 he questions why it seems so difficult to find in many movies gender balance and women treated like actual human beings instead of props 153 Biological seX chromosomal chemical anatomical apparatuses that make us either male or female Gender the cultural and social meanings experiences and institutional structures that are defined as appropriate for males and females masculinity and femininity OUTLINE framing and stereotyping of women gender theories history of women history of gender representation HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO GENDER REPRESENTATIONS IN FILM AND TV Individuals learn about gender and about what it means to be masculine or feminine according to what they observe around them including what they see in the mass media 153 Though gender no longer so completely determines one s place in American society there are unspoken rules for behaving as a man or a woman and these rules are used to identify the gender of other people 154 Cultural theorists tend to look at gender through the lens of power and politics there are dominant groups who control majority of power wealth and privileges and targeted groups who have less access to these resources In the US gt men are dominant group women are targeted group Answer to not all men the hegemonic domination of men over women creates a society in which masculinity is favored over femininity and greater opportunities are provided to those men who possess masculine traits In the end this translates to greater economic and professional success for men voting pay employment leadership etc 1920 fst wave feminist right to vote basic rights 154 2nd wave feminism 19603 career women single working proud 1970s reproduction family sexuality workplace liberal feministsstressed principles of liberal political philosophy end to economic and political inequities creating laws and instructions that provide women to broader ranges of employment and equal pay radical feminists innate biological differences between sexes and called for separation of men and women even create their own language both have evolved educate women rally against cultural misrepresentations and stereotypical images 3rd wave feminismpost feminism no shame in identifying with a traditional gender role as long as women have a choice others interpret as declaration that women are equal and done personal choice empowerment and individuality Judith Butler Gender Trouble Feminism amp the Subversion of Identity queer theory gender is all about performance and that 156 there is no such thing as gender identity nothing within gender identity is fixed gender performances reinforced through repetition people can change GENDER IN FILM Cynthia MLont Women and Media Content Careers Criticism Women flappers working girls virgins or vamps liberated women initiated sexual encounters pursued men had power Men gallant macho pioneers western heroes thieves pirates and war heroes Will Hays Code Motion Picture Producers amp Distributors of America Inc no scenes showing passion sexual innuendo and women of questionable character 156 James Bond Clint Eastwood ignored women or treated them as disposable sex objects men were rugged selfmade Exceptions Funny Girl The Miracle Worker The Unsinkable Molly Brown Princess Leia Lois Lane Norma Rae Annie Hall Julia ultra masculinity reliable heroic male likeable funny guy Star Wars Rambo Terminator Ghostbusters Are we compensating for Vietnam 157 Richard Dyer mainstream cinema primarily a reflection of white experience and society other representations are problematic Lots of copsdetective examples of BlackWhite partners 158 Women films that almost made as much money 9 to 5 Terms of Endearment Steel Magnolias Postcards from the Edge Baby Boom Silence of the Lambs Misery Driving Miss Daisy Pretty Woman marriage babies nuclear family old fashioned love happily ever after independent women in trouble neurosis psychopathic evil Jennifer Lopez Lucy Liu Halle Berry 159 4 of films included in the best pic category featured 1 or more females as director 26 writer 41 producer females more likely to be shown in films directed by women hyperattractive hypersexual or passive 160 Princess Diaries The Little Mermaid Anastasia social cognitive theory positive reinforcements delivered to media characters can increase the likelihood of learning or adopting the praised behavior female protagonists physically active healthy exhibit bravery in face of danger physical beauty still comes first before sexual attractivenessfierceness etc 163 GENDER IN ENTERTAINMENT TV typical female happy homemaker competent men head of household breadwinners their representation hasn t really changed single working woman appears in 60703 164 in general gender roles have changed a great deal since the 1970s with more women moving out of the home and into the workforce relationships between husband and wife have become more equal and men seem more willing to share in childcare and work around the house but it s not perfect yet males are either sex crazed and manly or comical and inept Everybody Loves Raymond The King of Queens According to Jim 166 Women just accept the inept man as he is lol 168 Women must choose a family life or career life they cannot have it all 170 GENDER IN MUSIC VIDEOS In music videos stereotypical hypersexualized owned and controlled women desired it playthings bimbos Excep ons Madonna Cyndi Lauper Pat Benatar 1989 MTV Program Standards Department reject videos with explicit graphic or excessive depictions of sexual practices as well as nudity and violence against women 175 CONCLUDING REMARKS no singular experience no one universal mass opinion on how a particular social group should behave or should be depicted in entertainment media 177 definitions of what constitutes femininity and masculinity change Chapter 9 REPRESENTATIONS OF GENDER IN PRINT MEDIA AND ADVERTISING The Cover Lie alterations of women in photoshop and print has a damaging effect on the women who see these unrealistic and impossible to attain images day after day 184 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO WOMEN IN PRINT MEDIA The Lady s Magazine and Repository of Entertaining Knowledge 1792 The Seven Sisters Better Homes and Gardens Family Circle Good Housekeeping Ladies Home Journal Redbook Women s Day urged on to perfection keep a better home behave like a lady care for family cook happy housewife heroine 185 In the second half of the 20th century in America a woman s world was confined to her own body and beauty the charming of man the bearing of babies and the physical care of serving husband children and home And this was no anomaly of a single women s magazine Betty Friedan 186 GENDER IN MAGAZINES Cosmopolitan taken over by a women ayd by the 1950s was about fiction and investigative journalism women s special interest magazine Sex and the Single Girl Glamour Bitch the mixed messages many women s magazine send empowerment and dependency independence and entanglement strength and seductiveness can be confusing to women and girls and somewhat frustrating for them as they try and decode these messages for themselves 187 Men s Magazines news crime info sport adventure hunting fishing urban life sex fashion humor fictionnonfiction Playboy Penthouse specialized and sex 189 Maxim parenting magazines depict men and women in stereotypical ways GENDER IN PRINT NEWS women are not told they cannot achieve but they are told that if they do they will be miserable as will their children Their families and sex lives will suffer 190 distinct gender gap reported in use of men versus women as news sources 191 men are more likely to hold positions of power in our society and are therefore more accessible 194 political stories in particular highlight gender role stereotyping in news 195 First Ladies are often seen as symbols of American womanhood 195 GENDER IN ADVERTISING advertising is slower to change with societal norms housewives caring for families cooking cleaning laundry beauty men were business oriented pillars of home women were sex objects arm candy working roles subservient secretary hairdresser waitress men were protectors who carried out more important roles and had to make more significant decisions for themselves and for their families than did women 197 more modern men at home helping with chores caring for children women at the workplace superwoman image sexual objectification 198 Women in ads are impossibly perfect they sell products and help create an impossible perfection and impossible standard of beauty and thinness 199 Turning women s bodies into things women of color as animals or with animal prints relentlessly heterosexual women need a man to be complete take up less physical space more vulnerable no fundamental change in percentages of women portrayed in ads versus men 199 time saving products so you can do it all because you re free and liberated fool mother nature turn back clock you can t be young enough thin enough or beautiful enough 200 GENDER TRENDS AND THE MALE GAZE Male Gaze the image of a woman is created from perspective of implied male observer body parts without faces subservient lying down crouched legs or mouth open bending over gazing at camera sexually hungry or in fear dominated tending to portray what women should look like and what men should look for 201 licensed withdrawal women more often than men are pictured as removed psychologically from the social situation at large leaving them disoriented in it and presumably dependent on the protectiveness and goodwill of others 202 men are also increasingly being targets for sexualixation there s equality guys right 203 GENDER IN NEW MEDIA noworg thirdwavefoundationorg bloghercom
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