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Week 3 Ch. 3

by: Briana Marcy

Week 3 Ch. 3 PSYC 100-001

Briana Marcy
GPA 3.8
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson

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The first half or so of the notes for chapter 3 :)
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/25/15
Briana Marcy PSYC 100001 Dr Anderson Week 3 Ch 3 The Place of Consciousness in Psychology s History 1880 s psychology defined as the description and explanation of states of consciousness First half of 20th century direct observation of behavior 1960 s consciousness nearly lost science of behavior After 1960 s study consciousness altered by hypnosis drugs and meditation importance of cognition Today with the influence of cognitive psychology neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience our consciousness have reclaimed its place as an important area of research Brain States and Consciousness Consciousness awareness of self and environment lnattentional blindness failure to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere The Biology of Consciousness Cognitive neuroscientists explore and map conscious cortex function and can sometimes read minds suggest consciousness arises from synchronized brain activity Dual Processing the twotrack mind Principle that info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious explicit and unconscious implicit tracks Perceptions memory attitudes and other cognitions are affected Blindsight awareness condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus wo consciously experiencing it When the blind can see Ex In a test a patient was instructed to walk down a hallway with various objects in the way athough he was told it was empty he still maneuvered around the obstacles Consciousness and Selective Attention Selective attention Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Parallel processing Processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously the brain s natural mode of information processing for many functions lnattentional blindness Failing to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere Selective Attention and Accidents Rapid toggling between activities is common today Multitasking distracts brain resources allocated to driving brain activity decreases average of 37 when conversation occurs Cellphone use increases the rick of accidents fourfold Crashes or nearcrashes increase sevenfold when either dialing or reaching for a phone Sleep periodic natural loss of consciousness as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma general anesthesia or hibernation Sleep amp Dreams Biological rhythms 24hour biological clock 90 min sleep cycle for younger adults Circadian rhythm internal bio Clock of 24hr cycle of day amp night As morning approaches body temp rises peaks during the day dips in the early afternoon and begin to drop in the evening Altered by age and experience How do scientists measure sleep activity They can measure brainwave activity eye movements and muscle tension by electrodes that pick up weak electrical signals from the brain eyes and facial muscles Brain Waves and Sleep Stages Beta waves of an alert waking state and the regular alpha waves of an awake relaxed state differ from the slower larger delta waves of deep NREM3 sleep Although the rapid REM sleep waves resemble the nearwaking NREM1 sleep waves the body is more aroused during REM sleep than during NREM sleep All about Sleeping One third of our lives spent sleeping One quarter of life sleeping Sleep defined a readily reversible state of reduced responsiveness to an interaction w the environment Functional States of the Brain Waking REM sleep 0 EEG looks more awake than asleep 0 Except for eye and inner ear muscles the body is immobilized 0 Our mind conjures up vivid and strange illusions that we call dreams NonREM sleep 0 Designed for rest 0 PNS takes over 0 Temp and energy consumption are lowered Analogies nonREM sleep is an idling brain in a movable body REM is an active hallucinating brain in a paralyzed body Physiology of REM Sleep EEGS almost indistinguishable from that of active waking brain fast low voltage fluctuations paradoxical sleep Oxygen consumption measure of energy use higher in REM than when brain is awake and concentrating on a difficult mathematical problem Paralysis occurs with almost total loss of muscle tone atonia Muscles controlling eye movement and tiny muscles of inner ear are active W lids closed eyes occasionally dart rapidly back and forth best predictors of vivid dreaming Dominated a sympathetic activity Temp control system quits core temp drifts downward Heart and respiration increase but become irregular Clitoris and penis become engorged and erect but not result of sexual content of dreams Sleep Cycle 75 of total sleep time spent in onoREM sleep 25 spent in REM sleep Periodic cycles between these states NonREM sleep divided into four distinct stages Slide through stages of nonREM into REM then back through the nonREM stages repeating cycle every 90 minutes NonREM Stage 1 Person becomes drowsy and begins to sleep transitional sleep EEG alpha rhythms of relaxed waking become less regular and wane and eyes make slow rolling movements fleeting usually lasting only a few minutes NonREM Stage 2 Slightly deeper lasting 515 minutes occasional 814 Hz oscillation of EEG called the sleep spindle known to be generated by thalamic pacemaker highamp sharp wave called the K complex is observed eye movements almost cease NonREM Stage 3 EEG begins largeamp slow delta waves eye and body movements are absent NonREM Stage 4 Deepest stage of sleep large EEG rhythms of 2 Hz or less during first sleep cycle stage 4 persists for 2040 minutes then sleep lightens again ascending to Stage 2 for 1015 mins suddenly enters brief period of REM sleep with its fast beta waves and sharp frequent eye movements REM Sleep As night progresses there is a reduction in duration of nonREM sleep and increase in REM periods half of night s REM sleep occurs during the last third longest REM cycles being 3050 mins obligatory refractory period of 30 minutes between REM cycles A quotGood Night s Sleep This varies widely among adults can be from 510 hrs per night average is 75 hrs the best measure of successful sleep is quality of time awake SLEEP ALPHA WAVES relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state HALLUCINATIONS false sensory experiences such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus DELTA WAVES large slow brain waves associated w deep sleep DREAMS Genitals are aroused during REM even if the dream content is not sexual Brainstem blocks messages from motor cortex sleep paralysis paradoxical sleep What affects our sleep patterns Sleep patterns are genetically and culturally influenced Bright morning light activates lightsensitive proteins that trigger suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN to cause decreased production of melatonin in morning and increased production in the evening Social jet lag may occur when sleep routines are disrupted during weekends Why do we sleep Sleep may have protected our ancestors by keeping them safe during potentially dangerous periods Sleep also helps restore and repair damaged neurons REM and NREM2 sleep help strengthen neural connections that build enduring memories During deep sleep the pituitary gland secretes a growth hormone necessary for muscle development SEE slide 35 of ch 3 PP how sleep deprivation affects us Major Sleep Disorders Sleep Deprivation causes fatigue and irritability impairs concentration productivity and memory consolidation can also lead to depression obesity joint pain etc lnsomia recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep Sleep Apnea stopping of breathing while asleep associated with obesity esp in men Night Terrors Sleepwalking and sleeptalking What do we dream about Daydreams familiar details from our life REM dreams dreams w negative event or emotion 8 in 10 dreams 1 in 10 among young men and 1 in 30 among young women dreams with info from the previous days events are the MOST common How has the concept of addiction changed The concept of addiction has extended to cover many behaviors but the degree and scope are debated ADDICTIONASDISEASENEEDING treatment now offered for many driven excessive behaviors Anything can be an addiction


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