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Lecture Notes

by: Clara Notetaker

Lecture Notes PSC 1001

Clara Notetaker
GPA 3.7
Introduction to Comparative Politics
Mitchell, C

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These are notes from the lectures this week.
Introduction to Comparative Politics
Mitchell, C
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clara Notetaker on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Mitchell, C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 09/25/15
Democracy and Democratization I KeyTerms A democracy 1 Minimal Definitions 2 Minimal Definitions vs Expansive Definitions a Advantages to Minimal Definitions 1 avoid grouping all good things together a democracy doesn t necessarily go handin hand w property rights social welfare personal liberites or other goods 2 easier to measure empirically 3 sidestep debates bt social democracy liberal democracy and populist democracy etc 3 Advantages to Expansive Definitions a Minimal democracies may not look like what we think of as democracies b civil liberties political rights may be essentiel to making democracy work properly c easier to separate true democracies from authoritarian states mimicking form of democracy 4 Core Modern Definition a people choose who go 13 B liberalism 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point C political rights 1 rights of participation in selection of rulers D ciVil liberities 1 limits on govt control 2 freedom to allow public debate 3 protecting minority rights E democratic consolidation F democracy promotion 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 11 Final Exam Date Announced A Dec 11 1240240 B First Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point C Second Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 111 Degrees of Democracy Freedom House Scores A Political Rights 1 electoral process 2 political pluralism B Civil liberites 1 freedom of expression C numerical scores 1 countries free partly free or not free IV Boundary Issues A Limits on Political Rights 1 limited suffrage if all adults can t vote a Enfranchisement in US 1 White propertyholding men US COnstitution 2 abolition of property qualifications for White men 18121860 Andrew Jackson 3 nonWhite men 1870 15th amendment 4 women 1920 19th amendment 5 native americans 1924 Indian citizenship act 6 residents of DC 1961 23rd Amendment 7 Poor poll tax 2 underrepresentation and underparticipation 3 authoritarian slaves B Limited Civil Liberties 1 tyranny of the majority a both politcial and ethnic minorities shut out 2 silencing on opposition voices a funding V Democratic Consolidation A 2 components to strong democracy 1 people who believe in democracy B unconsolidated democracy 1 democracy without democrats unstable a winners may be unwilling to cede power later 1 one person one vote one time C Do you need democrats before democracy 1 popular support creates democracy through out history D Democracy before Democrats 1 multi generational model Rustow a Generation I Democracy as 2nd best 1 2 sides can t defeat eachother 2 settle on democracy to end con ict a each still prefer victory outright b Generation 11 III Democratic values 1 raised in democratic system 2 value democracy as end in itself 3 now democracy is consolidated 4 from early age taught by democratic student body elections and history in democratic perspective 5 VI Preconditions vs Universalists A Is Democracy a universal value B Or a cultural product 1 Is islam incompatible with democracy Is Arab culture incompatable a Some used to argue that Catholicism was incompatable with democracy 2 cultural affinity for authoritarianism a asian values caudillostrongman affinityrule 1 Putin C Economic Preconditions 1 relationship bt economic development and democracy 1950 1990 2 Economic Development Promoting Democracy a importance of middle class 1 nurtures democratic values 2 numerous enough to want democracy 3 powerful enough to get democracy b Growing pie 1 easing distributional con icts 2 how to divide prosperity without a lot of it around 3 more concerned when people are growing poorer c stabilizer of regimes Przeworski and Limongi 3 Democracy Promoting Economic Development a complex economy requires responsive govt 1 never been a famine in a democracy b Democracies produce greater stability and rule of law 1 stability is most important thing in creating policy c democracies VII Attitudes toward Democracy A doesn t tell us that much B everyone seems to like democracy VIII If you had to choose what is most important for govt to do A as a democracy what works B more useful to look at than attitudes C fragile vs strong democracy D order vs democracy IX Democracy or development A East Asians promoted development 1 then democratized B If state is too weak neither matters much 1 Sub Saharan Africa C India defies predictions X Models of Democratization A Bridging vs Breaking 1 Bridging a Pacted Transition I retain order 2 smooth transition b but retain pockets of autharitarianism 1 military control 2 human rights abuses 3 enclaves of authorian rule 2 Breaking a Post Communism Mdel b Shock Treatment 1 remove authoritarian elements 2 break power of old elites c tremendously difficult I chaos creates nostalgia for authoritarian rule 2 remove old technocrats in military and buraeucracy 3 B Requires domestic support C Democratic Institutions 1 Key Terms A parliamentary system 1 2 3 fusion of executive and legislature legislature directly elected legislature elects prime minister a PM a member of parliament no fixed terms a elections must be called atleast every 5 years b PM serves until Parliament removes role of Prime Minister a selected as head of party or coalition that has majority in parliament b PM selects ministers who together form govt 1 draft legislation and implement policy c PM and govt serve until Parliament remove l partycoalition lose majority 2 PM suffers vote of no confidence 3 Margaret Thatcher tried to socialize security Role of Parliament a most power with PM and ministers b 1 few checks on govt power backbenchers vote party line 1 party discipline rewarded w ministry opposition reduced to critiquing policy 1 shadow cabinet ready to take power can remove PM without new election can call new elections 7 Head of State in Parl System B presidential system 1 separation of Executive and Legislature 953 J 21 13 executive and legislature elected independently neither subordinate to other all have fixed terms Roles in presidential system functions of president 1 unifying national leader 2 sets national agenda a manages foreign policy b veto authority over legislature 3 with cabinet executes policy functions of legislature 1 drafts legislation 2 oversight of executive 6 Pros and Cons a Checks and Balances 1 consensual system of govt a opposition retains voice 2 but can lead to gridlock b president a national unifying leader 1 has independent legitimacy a can act in national interest 2 but can t make laws Without legislature 3 potential for strongman rule C singlemember district D proportional representation E federalism 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 11 Why Varieties of Democracy A Different conditions 1 ethnic and regional divisions 2 political culture and history 3 size B Different Goals 1 efficiency vs checks on power 2 representativeness vs moderation 3 Majority Rule vs Minority Rights 4 All of the above are tradeoffs C Second Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 111 Institutions and Politics A Balancing effectiveness and constraints 1 efficient govt gets things done 2 checks and balances defend liberty a but can create gridlock and dissatisfaction B Institutions shape party system 1 number of parties 2 strength of parties a both american parties are pretty weak b david cameron has strong parties 3 ideological space of parties IV Consensual vs Majoritarian A Consensual Systems 1 checks and balances 2 requires supermajorities and consensus 3 4 US rapid change difficult B Majoritarian Systems few checks on Victors l 2 3 simple majority sufficient rapid change possible 4 Britain V Parties across states A operate differently in different states B vary on 2 dimensions 1 2 number of parties a some nation states have 30 parties internal strength disciplineunity of parties C Party shaped by l 2 history institutions D party system can manage or exacerbate divisions E Institutional Arguments 1 electoral systems 2 executive legislative 3 central vs federal systems 4 other elements VI Possible Combinations 1 US a SMD b presidential 2 Brazil a PR b presidential 3 UK westminister model a parliamentary b SMD 4 Netherlands Israel Germany a PR b Parliamentary VII Electoral Systems A Electoral Systems in Divided Socities 1 Single Member Districts a centripetal tendencies b permanent minorities 1 can permanently lock out minorities 2 Proportional Representation a guarantee minority representation b May exacerbate divisions c empowered radicals in Sri Lanka VIII Single Member Districts 1 one Winner per district 2 variants a plurality systems b condorcet systems 1 condorcet Winner candidate Who beats every other candidate in a oneonone race c runoff systems 1 second round elections 2 instant runoff systems a how Australian elections go 3 southern american states do this IX Effects of SMD A TwoParty Systems 1 big tent parties 2 fighting over center 3 individual appeal matters 4 3rd parties prove to not be effective in elections B wasted votes 1 everyone Whose candidate doesn t Win doesn t have a voice X Gerrymandering A Utah most reliably conservative state democrats all live in Salt Lake City district lines are drawn to make each district mostly have republicans B North Carolina 12th XI Proportional Representation A Muliple Winners per district 1 allocated proportionally a Virginia congressional seats 2 Level of representation affected by a seats per district b size and diversity of district c minimum threshold requirements B Affects of PR 1 Many parties a internally disciplined ideologically unified 2 Wider range of views represented a no rush for the center 3 few major changes a landslide elections rare 4 consensual system a Vs SMD Majoritarian XII ClosedList PR A with proportional representation system you vote for party rather than candidate XIII Coalition Govt A if no singleparty majority must form a coalition B traditional partners C Grand Coalition D Minor parties become kingmakers E Collapse of Govt 1 If party leaves coalition and coalition loses majority a govt collapses b small parties gain leverage 2 Options a can form new coalition with new partners b can call new election c can govern in minority 1 but seldom lasts long F CoalitionBuilding in Germany A Potential Left Coalition G Coalition in Israeli Knesset


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