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Bio Notes - Week 1

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by: Molly O'Neil

Bio Notes - Week 1 biol 208

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > biol 208 > Bio Notes Week 1
Molly O'Neil
Dr Firestone

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About this Document

Here are completed skeleton notes for lectures 1 and 2.
Dr Firestone
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to biol 208 at Towson University taught by Dr Firestone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
BIOL 208 Lecture 1 Before class read Ch 59 in the text and define the following vocabulary words Biodiversity the diversity of life considered at three levels Genetic variety of alleles in a population species or group of species Species variety and relative abundance of species present in a certain area Ecosystem diversity variety of communities and abiotic components in a region Prokaryote a member of the domain bacteria or archaea a unicellular organism lacking a nucleus and containing relatively few organelles or cytoskeleton components Eukaryote a member of the domain eukarya an organism whose cells contain a nucleus numerous membranebound organelles and an extensive cytoskeleton May be unicellular or multicellular Surface area a measure of the total area that the surface of an object occupies V h39me the ammmt f mace fhat a substance or object occupies or that is enclosed mum nt of a substance from a region of high concentration to PHYLUM r In a concentration gradient c hordaia f j H M hm u i a percent of each species Ses ORDER D Prim LS d1e out 1n a bottleneck you may lose alleles FAMLY by Honinidae V GENUS Homo quot SPECIES Homo sapiens Conyng DB Fear J m Cummings All nghls reseruer 3 Domains see Fig 2610 in text Copyright 5 2008 Pearson Beniamin Cummings All rights reserved The Physics of Life The BigThingLittle Thing Rule Little thing width height depth volume cm3 surface area cm2 weight Double the size of something Surface area goes up x4 Muscle strength goes up X4 Volume goes up X8 Weight goes up X8 BIOL 208 Lecture 1 Four little things fit into one big thing What does it mean if you decrease the Surface Area Volume ratio it is harder to get nutrients in and waste out actively pump stuff energy gates signal to pump tubesarteries veins capillaries xylem and phloem in and out Flow rate How much liquid passes through a tube during a given time interval 1 Size of the tube bigger faster 2 Viscosity high viscosity slower 3 Pressure high pressure faster You should be able to Define the vocabulary words List the taxonomic hierarchy Describe the three domains of life Explain the BigThingLittleThing Rule Explain Surface Area Volume Ratio Explain Flow Rate QMPPP Before class define the following vocabulary words independent variable Xaxis a variable whose variation does not depend on another dependent variable yaxis what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment It responds to the independent variable standard error a measure of the statistical accuracy of an estimate equal to the standard deviation of the theoretical distribution of a large population of such estimates pValue a function of the observed sample results a statistic that is used for testing a statistical hypothesis R2 value a fraction between 00 and 10 and has no units a number that indicates how well data fit a statistical model sometimes simply a line or a curve Nitrification the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate Xaxis vs Yaxis Xaxis independent variable what we change treatments location time Yaxis dependent variable what changes as a result mass weight height What is a scatterplot BIOL 208 Lecture 1 Has dots all over it may have error bars Ammonia with ammonia oxidizers I Nitrate nitrification Line of best fittrend line red line across the dots of data Raw vs average data Raw data a data point for every time a measurement is taken Average data like in a bar graph the top of the bar all the points added up diVided by 10 What are standard error bars Standard error bars small and look like T s shows the amount of error Close average small standard error bars If the standard error bars overlap then there is no significant difference between 1 amp 2 like chart on chalkboard If the bars do not overlap then there is a significant difference Stars show a significant difference What is a trend line or bestfit line R2 for trend lines how well the dots follow the line for a scatter plot You want a high R2 you want it to be greater than 02 If a trend line if at there means there is no correlation Negative correlation X goes up y goes down Positive correlation X goes up y goes up pValues for trend lines want it to be less than 005 If pValue is greater than 005 then there will be no correlation Pvalues for ags with standard error bars If the Standard Error Bars don t overlap there is a significant difference P value lt 005 then there is a significant difference P value gt 005 then there is no significant difference Blephilia graph blue lines are significantly different from the red lines honeysuckel tea does release some sort of toxin that prevents the seeds from germinating You should be able to Identify a scatterplot line graph and bar graph Determine whether a graph uses raw or average data Interpret a graph with standard error bars Interpret a graph with an R2 value Interpret a graph with a pValue U PP Pi Doing Science Hypothesis an educated guess BIOL 208 Lecture 1 Previous research I observation I question I hypothesis I methods I results I conclusion Gate from conclusions to preVious research for someone else data goes through peer reVieW to double check your work BIOL 208 Lecture 3 W 92 R 93 Before class read Ch 20 21 and 26 in the text and de ne the following vocabulary words evolution l the theory that all organisms on Earth are related by common ancestry and that they changed over time predominantly Via natural selection 2 any change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time especially a change in allele frequencies allele a particular version of a gene heritable referring to traits that can be transmitted from one generation to the next homozygous having two identical alleles of a certain gene heterozygous having two different alleles of a certain gene frequency the number of wave crests per second traveling past a stationary point Determines the pitch of sound and the color of light What is Evolution What is an allele a version of a gene Dominant shows up in the phenotype What is diploid 2 copies of gene homozygous heterozygous What does dominant mean shows up in a phenotype is expressed i recessive iIA recessive ii will show up What is frequency the number of that allele in that populationtotal of alleles for that gene in that population Blood type example ii 7 people 14 alleles because we re all diploid we have 2 alleles IAi 2 people 2 IBi 1 person 1 Total of i stotal of alleles 1760 frequency of i How does an allele s frequency change Evolution change in allele frequency over time Mutations Natural amp Sexual Selection Migration Drift random chance ex rolling their tongue Artificial Selection How does selection work Only cares about how many grandbabies you produce Favors alleles that produce more grandbabies Fecundity how many offspring do you produce if genetic affects how many offspring your children produce Survival for you and your children Requirements for Evolution by Natural Selection BIOL 208 Lecture 3 W 92 R 93 1 One allele results in more grandbabies than the other alleles fecundity is variable 2 Heritable needs to be genetic for selection to act on it 3 Variation in alleles no gene no allele for three legs can t act on something if there isn t a gene a variety needs to be there in order for selection to act on it cannot have a need that selection can act on 4 Survival not everyone survives to reproduce Ex Huntington s disease H gene dominant h allele normal Nerve cells in the brain start dying onset at 40 years old Natural selection would not act on this disease because people with the disease would already have had children Natural selection is not going to affect traits that are deleterious later in life Microevolutjon A change in allele frequency in populations still part of the same species If you bring the organisms back together the organisms can still mate Guppies sexual selection in the top pool females were choosing males that were more colorful Misconceptions about evolution 1 Myth Selection is the only way evolution happens I False mutation drift migration 2 Myth fitness is being more physically fit I False evolution only cares how many grandbabies you reproduce it s not about strength but about reproduction 3 Myth more evolution results in a more complex organism I False ex hot water in Yellowstone National Park humans vs bacteria evolution cares about the fitness it s not about how complex you are but how many grandbabies you have in that particular environment 4 Myth Selection responds to need I selection favors those who already have what they need 5 Myth Selection picks the best solution I selection can only pick among the variety of possibilities that already exist in the population favors the variety with the most grandbabies not concerned with health or happiness 6 Myth Selection does what is best for the population increases population fitness I selection is selfish favors those who produce the most grandbabies not genetic diversity or the best thing for the population 7 Justso stories you can explain how something got there by its current function I evolution acts on the last generation evolution is always one generation behind the current environment one step behind the current environmental system Exaptation trait that was good last generation is good for another reason now ex eyebrows communication we re visual beings eyebrows now have a new use 8 Myth Evolution is still debated by scientists I no You should be able to 1 Define the vocabulary words BIOL 208 Lecture 3 W 92 R 93 Explain what evolution is and the different types of evolution Explain the requirements for natural selection to occur Explain microevolution Describe at least three realworld examples of evolution 9593 Before class read Ch 22 in the text and de ne the following vocabulary words Species a distinct identifiable group of populations that it thought to be evolutionarily independent of other populations and whose members can interbreed Generally distinct from other species in appearance behavior habitat ecology genetic characteristics ect Niche the particular set of habitat requirements of a certain species and the role that species plays in the ecosystem Population a group of individuals of the same species living in the same geographyc area at the same time What is a species Look at the What is a species picture sheet up on the board On binder paper decide which organisms are most closely related to each other Draw a phylogenetic tree Put boxes around groups that are the same species What did you use to decide which birds were the same species What other information could you use can they breed do they produce viable offspring will they breed how genetically similar are they how similar is their ecological niche Biological Species Concept Can they interbreed Species a collection of populations that can and do interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other groups Key they interbreed yes lions and tigers Ecological Species Concept A species lives in the same ecological niche Can interbreed Don t need to be reproductively isolated Key they live in two different niches no to lions and tigers grasslands vs forests Putting a Spectrum into boxes Macroevolution BIOL 208 Lecture 3 W 92 R 93 1 prezygotic isolation 2 organisms the two populations never meet and are separated geographically Zygote first state of the embryo Prezygote before they meet Allopatric speciation 2 groups won t mate because they don t recognize each other 2 groups physically cannot mate commonly due to lock and key genetallia Mating dance doesn t work EX Bower Birds and animals on other side of Panama Isthmus Why does prezygotic work Females that mate with a different male have to produce inferior offspring Different male prespeciation population the male looks different Selection for choosy females 2 postzygotic isolation Happens second happens after prezygotic isolation So different genetically that they cannot form a functional organism Can be slow or fast Slow can be millions of years Fast 1 generation How fast is fast Nondisjunction egg or sperm 2n 3n 4n offspring is polyploid Red ower with pedals curved back pollinated by humming birds Yellow ower with pedals curved forward pollinated by bees Will not be mating with each other You should be able to 6 Define the vocabulary words 7 List the common misconceptions about evolution and explain why they are wrong 8 Explain the difference between the biological species concept and ecological species concept 9 Provide a good argument about whether two populations are the same species using the species concepts and the types of species isolation BIOL 208 Lecture 3 W 92 R 93


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