Chapter 1 notes
Chapter 1 notes NHM 201
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Wagner on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 201 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Lifecycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
NHM 201 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle 82515 CH 1 Labels Weights and Measurments Basic Nutrition information related to life cycle stages is presented in this chapter Life COurse Approach to Nutrition and Health Healthy individs require the same nutrients throughout life Amounts of nutrients vary based on age growth and development also cultural differences Diets may be defined by cultures and religions N utrition Assessment community level assessment Individual level CLinicalphysical dietary Nutrition Principle 1 food is a basic need of humans food security food insecurity people who are forced to find food in unconventional ways socially unnacceptable about 14 of US households are food insecure Principle 2 Food provide energy nutrients and othersubstances needed forgrowth amp health caorie nutrients esse ntial body cannot manufacture vitamin C nonesse ntial cholesterol Factors that impact Nutrient Needs Dlestary Intake STandards Diestary Reference Intakes DRIs umbrela underwhich we have 4othercategories of measurments Recommended Dietary Dietary Allowances RDAs Adequate ntakesAs Estimated Average Requirements EARs Toerabe Upper Intake Levels ULs ifwe ate too many fat soluble Vitamin A vitamins it can hurt our body Learn theseMAMA Nutrient Standards on Food Labels DaiyValues DVs Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates sugars monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose Disaccharides sucrose maltose lactose Complex carbohydrates polysaccharides starchespantform gycogen animal form fiber Sugar Alcoholspolyols Sorbitol Mannitol 2 calories pergram Alcohol ethanol ETOH 7 calories pergram Glycemic Index extent to which carbohydrate containingfoods increase blood glucose levels higherglycemic index raises blood glucose levels higher foods with lowerglicemicindeximproves blood glucose control in diabetes look onto page 6 Recommended intake level 4565 of calories Added Sugar 25 or less of calories 21 25g fiberday forfemales 30 Protein Amino Acids building Blocks Essential NonEssential Consider Protein Quality contain all essential amino acids Recommended Ntake1035 of calories look on page teble 16 Fats Lipids Fatsa subclass oflipids fats solid ois liquid Triglycerides Essential Fatty Acid Linoleicacid omega6 Alphalinolenic acid omega3 Most adults do not consume adequate levels ofomega3fatty acid Recommended intake Zservings of fatty fishes perweek for omega 3fatty acids centrtal nervous system and brain health especially pregnants women Satu ration States Pg 9 Saturatedno double bonds UNsaturated Monounsaturatedone double bond olive oil avocados poyunsaturated2 or more double bonds Butter Hydroge nation and Trans Fats Hydroge nation adds hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids sol id at room tempurature Changes structure of fatty acid from cis structure to trans form not good for you CHolesteral nonessential a fatsoluble ceariquid found in animal products a precurserofesterogen testosterone and vitamin D Recc Intake of Fats 2035 of calories from fat limitinfunhealthy fats Vitamins Water soluble table 18 Thiamin riboflavin niacin B6 folate 312 biotin pantothenicacid choline C ron Calcium Zinc Fat Soluble table 18 A D EK Functions coenzymes antioxidants only have to know some recommended intakes what deficiencies toxicities and ULs Know phytochemicals Minerals 15 of themtable 112 iron zinc calcium function carry positive or negative charge function as coenzyme know food sources Water adults are 6070 water recommended daily intakes 1516 cups males 11cups females Principle 3 Health problems related ro nutrition originate within cells homeostasis constancy of internal Principle 4 POOR nutrition can resultfrom both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake deficiency diseases overdoeses of nutrients result in mild to severe alteration in functioning Principle 5 Humans have adaptive mechanismsfor managingfluctuations Principle 6 malnutrition can resultfrom poordiets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations ofthese causes primary malnutrition secondary malnutrition table 115 geneticissues with nutrition Nutrition Principle 7 0 Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Nutrition Principle 8 0 Poor nutrition can influence development of certain chronicdiseases 0 Heart disease 1 killerof women cancer diabetes stroke hypertension osteoporosis type2diabetes obesity 0 Top 5 modifiable by diet Nutrition Principle 9 o Adequacy variety and balance are key characteristics ofa healthy diet 0 Nutrient density food with higher nutrients broccoli vs donught o quotemptycalorie foods energy bar added sugars Principle 10 0 There are no quotgoodquot or quotbadquot foods 0 All foods can fit intoa healthful diet Nutrient Labeling 0 Nutrient Fact Panel 0 Must list fat saturated fat transfat cholesterol sodium total carbohydrates fiber sugars protein vitamins A and C calcium and iron these are all required to put on a nutritionfacts panel 0 dailyvalue 0 Nutrient content and health claims 0 lngredientlabel Ingredient Listing 0 Food products must listingredients in an ingredientlabel 0 Ingredients are listed by weight starting with greatest amount Dietary Supplementlabeling 0 quotsupplement Facts panel lists serving size ingredients and DV 0 Nutrition content claims 0 Health claims must include disclaimer Other Labeling Concerns o Enrichmentand fortification o Enrichment refined grain products have added thiamin niacin riboflavin and iron 0 Fortified addition ofany other nutrient I Refined flour folic acid I Milk 9vitamin D I Lowfat and skim milk 9 vitaminsA and D I Some salt 9 iodine prevents goiter 0 Functional Food or Neutraceuticals 0 Foods made quotfunctionalquot by removing harmful or increasing beneficial substances I Prebiotics fiberlike indigestible CHO broken down by bacteria 39 m live beneficial bacteria 39 SEE TABLE 117 Public Food and Nutrition Programs PG 42 I Community Programs I Statelevel Programs I Federal Programs I SEE TABLES 120 AND 121 o S p upplementalnutrition M Woman infants and childrens program School Lunch Headstartcommunity run early intervention through age 5 Summerfeeding program run through schools providing meals to children Mall assistance programs money given by state or federal gov and either they run it themselves orgive it to the communities OOOOO Nationwide priorities for improvements 0 US Nutrition and Health Guidelines 0 DietaryGuidelinesforAmericans o MyPlategov o USDA s Food Groups 0 Based on food groups easierto learn and know what to put on theirplate 0 Healthy People 2020 Objectives forthe Nation 0 The DASH Diet 0 Guidance tool originally developed for hypertention I Dietaryapproachestostop hypertension 0 Working to help people use my plate to make a daily eating plan
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