Chapters 2, 6, and 15 Lecture + book notes
Chapters 2, 6, and 15 Lecture + book notes ANTR 110S
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathaniel Rhodes on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTR 110S at Old Dominion University taught by KRISTIN M MACAK in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Anthropology Section 2 chapters 25 and 16 culture ANTRllOS Vocabulary word Chapter 2 Culture What is Culture A K Culture is a set of beliefs food choices activities etc that makeup who you are Enculturation A process in which culture is passed learn or transmitted to another generation ex Christianity learned from your parents Ways of learning culture 1 Acculturation exchange of culture between 2 different cultures and 2 Independent invention Culture is all learned in one place home church etc Culture is Symbolic learned shared with others integrated into life Instrumental adaptive and maladaptive ever changing and used for lots of different functions and culture even teaches us what to do in certain situations and how to do it National Culture Culture shared within a nation ex 4th ofJuly USA International Culture Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundariesHeritage day in Africa Globalization Quickening interdependence of nations of the modern worldex computers Globalization has brought nations together with the advent of social media and internet capabilities Particularity Distinctive and unique cultural traits Universal exists in every culture Generality Culture patterns of many people Cultural Anthropologistsstyles of teaching culture A Tyler Culture is acquired through biological inheritance being born into a community B Geartz believed you learn culture through experiencing it C White believed culture consists of tools to help you learn the meaning of itself Anthropology Section 2 chapters 25 and 16 culture ANTRllOS Chapter 6 Variation and Adaptation A Race is a discredited concept in biology due to being a social construct based solely off phenotypical traits how you look rather than biological traits what makes you well you Racial Classification Assigning humans to categories based off their common ancestry Race cannot be fixed because of genetic clines Gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations They prevent us from being put in anyone one specific and fixed race Genetic markers also do not correlate with phenotype another denial to race The AAA race project seeks to identify 3 main messages about race 1 Race is a human invention 2 Race is more about culture not biology and lastly Race and racism are instilled in everyday life Biological similarities do not indicate ancestry which race is often connected to Biological differences bring about diversity Climate Nutrition and preferences may determine what you look like not race The 2 approaches to human biological diversity 1 Racial Classification mostly abandoned by science and 2 Current explanatory understanding differences instead ofraces Skin color is a complex biological trait of several genes determined also by the amount of melanin the pigmentation of your skin in your body before the 16th century dark skinned people lived in the tropics was a natural selection trait that benefitted those living there intense sunlit areas the high melanin count prevented skin cancer and sun burn Tropics Zone between 23 degrees north tropic of Cancer and 23 degrees south tropic of Capricorn of the equator Thomson39s nose rule Longer noses are found more in colder areasmore air flow Bergmann39s rule Larger body sizes in the cold and smaller body sizes in warm areas Anthropology Section 2 chapters 25 and 16 culture ANTR110S O Haplogroup Lineage or branch of genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutations making that division of race impossible P Allen39s rule Body shape are thinner in warm areas rounded in cold areas building upon Bergmann39s rule Diversity A Diversity is the difference between people culturally physically and mentally Diverse set of religions food choices and physical appearances in the world as well as mind setsEx Swedish people as compared to British people B Subcultures cultures within a culture ex Christians have protestants Catholics and many other sub categories Chapter 15 Ethnicity and Race A Ethnic groups are based on cultural similarities and differences in a societynation B Ethnic groups Share certain beliefs values habits and customs due to a similar backgroundcan include descent and kinship C nterethnic between two ethnic groups relations create stronger weaker ties between two ethnicities Ethnicity Identifying and sharing a common bond with an ethnic group E Ethnicity is only one for of group identification F Statusstanding in society whether it39s very rich very poor king queen etc is another form of identification G Some statuses are mutually exclusive blackwhite malefemale others are not being a mother and a senator H Ascribed status Social status with little to no choice ex being a grandson Achieved status Social status based on accomplishments J Race Ethnic groups with assumed biological traits black white etc K Racism Discrimination of an ethnic group based on phenotypical traits Anthropology Section 2 chapters 25 and 16 culture L ANTRllOS Hypo descent A child of mixed unions put in the same group as the minority parent if Asians were the majority and whites were the minority then white would be where the child is placed M Race is again a social construct and NOT REAL More definitions in this chapter you may need to know A NationState An autonomous political entityautonomous means self sufficient stratification class structure based on differences in wealth power and status Nation Society sharing the same language religion history territory ancestry and kinship with one another ex the Kurds State Stratified with a formal center ex France Nation is ethnic state is nonethnic Nationalities Ethnic groups that once had a nation and now seek to regain their own country ex the Kurds Assimilation process of bringing a minority ethnicity into a dominating country Colonialism Foreign Domination of a generally peaceful landex south and north Africa Plural society Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups ex Pakistani people Multiculturalism Cultural diversity is worth preserving Discrimination Treating an ethnicity with disrespectful behavior prejudice Hate of a group based off negative assumptions Stereotype Ideas that are unfavorable about a group Genocide Intentional elimination of a group ex Hitler39s attack of various groups Jews gypsies homosexuals etc Refugee People fleeing to escape war or persecutionex Haitian refugees Anthropology Section 2 chapters 25 and 16 culture ANTR110S P Ethnocide Destroying a culture of an ethnic groupex ISIS attacking the temple of Bel Q Cultural domination forcing your culture or ideologies on another
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