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Unit 2

by: Sandeep Dhingra

Unit 2 CHM 111

Sandeep Dhingra
GPA 3.9
Prin of CHM I
No professor available

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Notes over Matter and Atomic Theory
Prin of CHM I
No professor available
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sandeep Dhingra on Saturday September 20, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 111 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/14
Chemistry is the study of matter Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Observation What is it How much is there Why does it do that Matter Are the properties uniform from place to place in a sample If yes then Homogeneous sample Any Pure Element Fe Rod 02 Gas Any pure compound Water CO2 NaCl Well mixed mixture of pure compounds and or elements If no then Heterogeneous Sample Pizza Separate into pure components Extensive Property depends on how much matter is being considered Intensive Property does not depend on how much matter is being considered Physical Property Chemical Property Analytical Biochemistry Inorganic Chem Organic Chem Physical Chem Postulates of Daltons Atomic Theory of Matter 1 Matter consists of indivisible atoms Not True we can split atoms 2 All of the atoms of a given chemical elements are identical in mass and in all other properties Not True Isotopes exist 3 Diff chemical elements have diff kinds of atoms and in particular such atoms have diff masses True 4 Atoms are indestructible and retain their identity in chemical reactions True 5 The formation of a compound from its elements occurs thru the combination of atoms of unlike elements in small whole number ratios True The Laws Leading to Atomic Theory The Law of Conservation of Mass In every chemical operation an equal quantity of matter exists before and after the operation The Law of Definite Proportions In any given compound the proportions by mass of the elements that compose it are fixed independent of the origin of the compound or its mode of preparation The Law of Combining Volumes When two gases react the volumes that combine at some Temperature and Pressure do so in the ratio of simple integers Volume is not conserved in gaseous reactions Avogadro s Law Equal Volumes of ideal gases at the same temp and pressure contain the same number of particles moleules The Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements A amp B form two diff compounds the masses of element B that combine with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers ATOMS Charge on a proton Charge on an Electron 16021773 X 10quot19 Coulomb Molecular Formula used only for covalent species Subscripts specify the exact number of atoms of each element in one molecule of the substance Empirical Formula used for covalent species Subscripts indicate the relative numbers of each kind of atom in the molecule Total Mass gt Mass Spec Formual Unit used for ionic species All ionic compounds exist in large crystalline arrays rather than as discrete molecules Relative or Atomic Mass Units AMU AMU have no units Avogadro s Number 602 x 10quot23 1 Mole of Anything


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