Unit2 notes part1
Unit2 notes part1 Psych 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Arig Aboulenein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Psych 105 Unit 2 Learning vs Conditioning 0 Learning change in behavior or knowledge due to expenence Conditioning associating between environmental events amp behavioral responses Types of Learning Classicalconditioning certain stimuli can trigger a response Operant conditioning how new actions are acquired Observational learning new behaviors are learned by observing other peoples acUons Classical conditioning Pavlov Russian physiologist Recognized the patterns of stimuli Terms Stimulus event that causes a response Response reaction to the stimulus Neutral stimulus NS stimulus that produces no response Unconditioned occurs naturallyre exiver Conditioned something that is learned Unconditioned stimulus UCS natural stimulus Unconditioned response UCR unlearned re exive response Conditioned stimulus CS neutral stimulusljelicits a response Conditioned response CR learned re exive response to CS Classical conditioning when two unrelated things get paired together 0 Steps two stimulus one neutral one natural then repeatedly paired Pavlov39s dog associated ringing a bell to food the dog would salivate when a bell was rung the dog would continue to salivate when no food was present Neutral stimulus bell Unconditioned stimulus meat Unconditioned response drooling Conditioned stimulus bell Conditioned response drooling Watson39s Behaviorism Believed all human behavior is the result of conditioning and learning 0 quotCase of little Albertquot every time Albert would play with the rat Watson would make a loud sound Albert associated the white rat to loud unpleasant n0Ise Pavlov believed he discovered the mechanics of learning Watsons applied his learning to human behavior Factors that affect conditioning Stimulus generalization the occurrence of a learned response responding to other similar stimuli Stimulus discrimination only responding to a speci c stimuli Higher order conditioning taking previous stimuli and adding a new stimuli to produce a learned stimuli Example Pavlov replaced the bell with a dance Timing conditioning most effective when stimulus follows right after Extinction gradual weakening of conditioning behavior Spontaneous recovery reappearance of extinct stimulus but the stimulus will be weaker Classical conditioning in life John Watson pioneered the application of classical conditioning to advertising Emotional response some people get emotional responses after a car accident tensing up panic attacks Drugs pacebo response 0 user associates sight smell and taste with the drug effect conditioned compensatory response 0 stimuli that precede the drug causes a physiological reaction that is opposite to the drug s effect 0 the body puts up protection so the drug user does not die from over dose Operant Conditioning deals with the learning of voluntary behaviors that are shaped and maintained by their consequences Edward Thorndike rst psych to investigate animal learning studied how behaviors are in uenced by their consequences 0 Law of Effect responses with a satisfying effect become strengthened and are likely to repeat responses with a dissatisfying effect become weakened and are less likely to repeat BF Skinner behaviorist believed in only observable behaviors o operant any behavior that acts upon the environment to receive a consequence Reinforcement positive addition of reinforced stimuli negative the removal of punishing stimuli know that positive can be a punishment and negative can be a reward Reinforcing stimuli 0 primary reinforcer using a stimulus that is natural for the given species food water secondaryconditioned reinforcer a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with primary reinforcer when you use a clicker as a reward for puppy training Punishment the process where a behavior is followed by a consequence this decreases the likelihood of behavior s being repeated Skinner39s Two Types of Punishment 0 punishment by applicationpositive punishment operant is followed by the addition of a stimulus o Punishment by removalnegative punishment operant is followed by the removal of a stimulus How to reduce undesirable behavior punishment may decrease the problem behavior over time it does not promote desirable behavior 0 4 ways to reduce undesirable behavior 0 strategy 1 reinforce an incompatible behavior 0 strategy 2 stop reinforcing the problem behavior o strategy 3 reinforce the nonoccurrence of the problem behavior 0 strategy 4 remove the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement Operant Conditioning Terms Discriminative stimulus specific stimuli in the presence of a particular operant is more likely to be reinforced Shaping seective reinforcement of goal behavior until goal behavior is displayed taking steps in order to reach the desired goal 0 Extinction gradual weakeningdisappearance of conditioned behavior occurs when behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer 0 Partial Reinforcement behaviors that are conditioned using partial reinforcement are usually more resistant to extinction
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