Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes PHIL-1210-05
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Chupp on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL-1210-05 at Tulane University taught by Franklin (Frankie) Worrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Symbolic Logic 1210-05 in PHIL-Philosophy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
11 Arguments Premises and Conclusions Logic the organized body of knowledge or science that evaluates arguments aim is to develop a systematic formula to evaluate arguments in order to build strong arguments Argument a group of statements with one or more premises and a conclusion Premise Claimed evidence Premise indicators words that identify premises since as indicated by in that given that COHCIUStOH What is calmed to follow from the evidence Conclusion indicators words that identify the conclusion Statement A sentence that is either true of false Examples The moon is round Dinosaurs are extinct Anchorman Two was better than Anchorman Statements have truth values Truth Values whether something is true or false lnference the reasoning process expressed by an argument often used interchangeably with argument Proposition the meaning or information content of a statement the words proposition and statement are used interchangeably 2 Recognizing Arguments Two points that are necessary for something to be an argument 1 At least one of the statements must present evidence or reason 2 there must be a claim that derives from the alleged evidence or reason These are the premises and conclusions WarninQl sentence that puts someone on guard Example Don t touch me Piece 0t adViCe expression that makes a recommendation about a future decision Example If you take symbolic logic you should take Frankie s course He s reauy wacky Statement 0t belief00tnt0n expression about what someone thinks Example When your hair is the same color as a flamingo it s time to reevauate your jfe Choices because there is no support for the conclusion it is not an argument Loosely aSSOCiated Statement statements about the same subject but without a claim linking themlacking a claim that proves the statement Example To be kind is to be moral To be moral is to be just ReIOOF f consists of a group of statements that state information on a topic or event Example Scientists presume that by the year 2040 there will be a singularity between machines and humans creating one of three results Either robots will take over the Earth robots will become morally superior beings to humans and aid us in making the Earth better or humans will merge with robots Reports may be about arguments so just be careful EXPOSitOFY passage begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence If the topic sentence is expanded upon rather than proved than it is NOT an argument Example The singularity theory is possible due to the exponential rate at which people develop Since life began one can observe how quickly humans developed after apes in comparison to single cell organisms note that the topic sentence is simply being expanded upon rather than proved with a premise Illustration expression with one ore more examples of something in order to show how something is done or what something means Example Primary colors can be mixed with one another to create other colors For example red and blue make purple Lisa s mom likes to call her anything but her given name Thus she is often called Lala or LiliLa Note that simply using words such as thus can be used in illustrations Conclusion indicators do not always indicate conclusions Arguments from ExamIOIe many illustrates are taken as arguments and are called arguments from example Example People are likely to merge with robots to the point where we cannot see the difference For example some people have computer chips in their brain so that they can use prosthetic body parts making them part robot EXIOIaHa fion meant to explain something Example People s hands appear to get wrinkly in water because of osmosis which is when cells absorb water explanandum describes the thing that is going to be explained explanans the statements that explain the phenomenon explanans are similar to premises in that they claim to shed light on something while premises claim to prove a conclusion An explanandum is similar to a conclusion in that is is an accepted fact while conclusions are potentially true Conditional statements ifthen statements made up of the two parts Antecedent what follows the if consequen f what follows the then Example If it rains then you should wear a rain coat The dog needs to be let out if it barks Relationship between conditional statements and arguments A single conditional statement is not an argument A conditional statement may be the premise the conclusion or both of an argument The inferential concepts within a conditional statement can be restated to form an argument 13 Deduction and Induction DedUCtiVe argumen f an argument with a claim that makes the conclusion impossible to be false given that the premises are true Example Socrates is a human All humans are mortal Therefor Socrates is mortal lndUCtiVe argumen f an argument with a claim that makes the conclusion improbable given that the premises are true Example Dolphins are mammals All dogs are mammals Therefore all dogs are dolphins 14 Validity Truth Soundness Strength Cogency Valid dedUCtiVe argumen f an argument where it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given the premises are true analid dedUCtWe argument a deductive argument where it is possible for the confusion to be false given the premises are true deductive arguments can be sound or unsound Sound arguments a valid argument with true premises Sound argument valid argument all true premises Unsound argument a deductive argument that is invalid has one or more false premises or both Strong IndUCtiVe argumen fs inductive argument where it is improbable that the conclusion is false given all true premises Weak indUCtiVe argumen f an argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises even though it is claimed to Inductive arguments can be cogent or uncogent Cogent argument an inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises Cogent argument strong argument all true premises Uncogent argument is an inductive argument that is weak has one or more false premises fails to meet the total evidence requirement or any combination of these Arguments lnductive Deductive Strong Weak Valid lnvalid Cogent Uncogent Sound Unsound