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Chapter 4 notes

by: Beatrice Garcia

Chapter 4 notes CRIJ 3313

Beatrice Garcia
Criminology 3313
Dr. Egbert Zavala

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About this Document

These are my lectured notes for chapter 4 (criminology class) Hopefully its helpful to you & just incase you had missed class.
Criminology 3313
Dr. Egbert Zavala
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatrice Garcia on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIJ 3313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Egbert Zavala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Criminology 3313 in Criminal Justice at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
Chapter 4 rational choice theory introduction Brational choice theory posits that crime is a rational decision to violate any law and is rational decision to violate any law and is made for a variety of reasons including greed revenge need anger lust jealousy thrill seeking or pride The developmental of rational choice Cesare Beccaria the development of rational classical criminoloqy is most closely identified with the thoughts of Beccaria 17381794 people choose a behavior including criminal behavior people choices are designed to bring them pleasure and reduce pain hedonistic and self centered criminal choices can be controlled by fear of punishment the more severe certain and swift the punishment the greater its ability to controlcriminal behavior Cesare Beccaria Bpunishment must be proportional to the seriousness of Crime if not people would commit more serious offenses known today as mardinal deterrence Bsuggested that the extremely harsh punishments of the day and routine use of torture were inappropriate and excessive a criminal who decides not to commit a crime perceived it as too risky the offender would stand a good chance of being caught and punished classical criminology people have free will crime promises a huge payoff people make choices based upon perceived rewards and punishments punishments must be severed certain and swift to convince criminals that quotcrime does not payquot certainty seems to have the strongest impact classical criminology Bby the end of the nineteenth century the popularity of the classical approach declined by the midtwentieth century positivistic views gained mainstream acceptance poverty IQ education home life believed to be true causes of criminality contemporary choice theory emerges Emu1970s a renewed interest in the classical approach to crime rehabilitation failed to prevent future criminal activity a significant increase in the reported crime rate as well as serious disturbances in the nations prisons frightened the general public thinking about crime criminals are rational actors who planned their crimes feared punishment and deserved to be penalized for their misdeeds the secuctions of crime there are situational inducements that directly precede the commission of a crime and draw offenders into law violations The concepts of rational choice why crime seductions of crime crime may provide money or drugs a sense of control of your environment boost self esteem to feel alive and competent choosing crime law violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors and situational factors offense and offender offense specific crime offenders will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act quotwhat are the steps I need to take to commit this crimequot offenders specific crime lndividuals must decide if they have the prerequisites to commit a successful criminal act quotdo l have the skills to commit this crimequot crime is an event criminality is a personal trait structuring criminality where crime occurs and the characteristics of the target Ba number of personal factors condition people to choose crime economic opportunity loffenders know people who have made quotbig scoresquot learning and experience child abuse knowledge of criminal techniques techniques to avoid detection structuring crime decisions must be made about what where when and whom to target choosing the type of crime the choice of crime may be dictated by market conditions choosing the time and placed of crime criminal behavior may be altered according to shifting opportunity structures selecting the target of crime target vulnerability ls crime rational is theft rational seems more likely to be random acts of criminal opportunity than well thought out conspiracies German carsbetter audio equipment is drug use rational research at the onset drug use is controlled by rational decision making drug dealers approach heir quotprofessionquot in a business like fashion is violence rational violence is a matter of choice and serves specific goals control retribution deterrence reputation rational robbers choose victims who are vulnerable have low coercive power and do not pose any threat send a message quotawareness spacequotescape routes rational killers Bmany homicides are the result of rational planning and care in targeting the victim rational sex criminals Bsex criminals report using rational thought and planning Eliminating crime for many people crime is attractive bringing rewards excitement or prestige without lengthy work or effort called Edgework Elf crime is rationale then it can be controlled or eradicated by convincing potentialoffenders crime is a poor choice that will not bring rewards but instead lead to hardship and deprivation crime is not worth the effort crime brings pain that is not easily forgotten Situational crime prevention targeting specific crimes situational crime prevention a method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings crime discourages surveillance cameras tactics to reduce a specific crime problem increase efforts reduce rewards increase risk caller ID increase shame reduce provocation remove excuses situational crime prevention benefits diffusion preventing other crimes unintended discouragement help reduce crime in an adjacent area costs displacement redirecting offenders to other areas they go to another place to steal extinction criminals adjust to new conditions hide themselves Breplacement car burglars turn to violent crimes doing something different General deterrence The decision to commit can be controlled by the threat of criminal punishment perception of punishment and deterrence Canadian criminologists insurance study certainty of punishment and deterrence adding more police officers not reducing crime severity of punishment and deterrence stricter laws not reducing crime speed celerity of punishment and deterrence Etrials and arrest take a long time Criticisms some crimes are planned but others are not active robber give little thought about punishment some criminals have a fatalistic attitude and go ahead and commit a crime getting arrested does not matter some criminals were on drugs or alcohol little thought on the consequences crimes of passion assaults


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