Week 4-5 (14-25 Sept. 2015) Biology 2040-Aquatic Biomes and Population Ecology
Week 4-5 (14-25 Sept. 2015) Biology 2040-Aquatic Biomes and Population Ecology BIOL 2040
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Week 45 1425 Sept 2015 Biology 2040 Ch 44 Aquatic Biomes Oligotrophic Lake not many plantsalgae rockybottoms lower sedimentnutrient count clear How much of biosphere is aquatic biome 7075 water latitudinal variation not as big as terrestrial Freshwater and marine biomes physical and chemical features determine distinction salt concentration in seawater 3 freshwater 1 Largest marine biome oceansgt water evaporates from them providing most of Earth s precipitation effects of ocean temperature large effects on coastlines and global climate and wind patterns Marine algae and photosynthetic bacteriaimportant benefits for global scale a lot of oxygen because of sheer scale and takes carbon dioxide out of water C02H20gt02C6H1202 Freshwater Biomes in uenced by wind speed current rainfall and bioticabiotic factors especially from terrestrial biomes and terrestrial biomes close interchange between bordering ecosystems Aquatic biomes characterized by various features determinants of type of aquatic biomes physical environment chemical environment geological features biotic components Zonation determined by light penetration depth temperature characterized by stratified organization Photic Zoneslight penetrates Aphotic Zone no light Palagic Zone open water Abyssal Zon 20004000 m Benthic Zone bottom along ocean oor Ben thos organisms at bottom mim debriswaste Thermoclineboundary between water of different temperatures Turnover Communities varv most are in photic zones Lab EcosystemBiological community of livinginteractive organisms and their physical environment Biomagnificationhigher trophic levels eat a lot of the lower levels causing a buildup of things like toxins in the higher levels Producercreate biomass through photochemo synthesis Consumer eat other organisms for energy Food Chainhow energy ows through biotic elements of ecosystem trophic levels one pathway through which energy ows Detritivoreconsume dead things Decomposerturn organic matter into inorganic matter that producers can use Unicellular organismsingle celled all life processes occur in that one cell Aggregates of cellsrandomtemporary clusters of cells M maintain consistent number of cells can depend on one another Multicellular2 or more cell types specialized functions take 1 cell type away and it won t surVive Ch 45 Population Ecology Population number of indiVidual organisms of same species in certain area Within a community Population Ecology focuses on how biotic and abiotic factors in uence size density and distribution of populations Descriptions of populationssize and boundaries Population Size N Density how many per unit area more terrestrial or volume more aquatic Dispersion arrangement of indiViduals Population size and densityoften used to understanddescribe populations health size density resource use enough indiViduals to reproduce in uence on survivaladaptation big populationmore genetic diversity so they have heightened ability to adapt too densebehavioral issues aggression reproduction etc body size smaller higher densities than bigger ones Almost impossible to count entire population easier to count bigger organisms Sampling techniques population density can be estimated indirect count bird nests feces feathers feeding damage Quadrat Samplinguseful for nonmoving or slowinfrequent movers quadratsquare put in habitat to estimate individual number in habitat area Mark and Recapture Methoduseful for mobile organisms captured and marked and population sampled again later provides estimate Disadvantagescaptureshy or want to get captured EX Study of Whitetail deer 80 capturedmarkedreleased 100 captured 20 already marked Calculation NlSt catchtotal 2nd catch Already marked in 2nd catch What s density a result of Interactions between variety of processes that addremove organisms from population Add to populationreproduction immigration Decrease population death emigration Videomarkrecapture assess population and organism condition pit tag Dispersiondistribution surVivorship curves Population growth What affects the Dispersion arrangement of individuals in population relative to eachother environmental factors social factors Clumped dispersionpopulation s individuals occur in patches or aggragations Causesterritoriality resources not spread evenly behavioralsocial ex Sea stars most common Uniform Distributioneven space between individuals mechanisms to reduce competition for scarce resources ex seagulls Territoriality stake out territory to reduce competition for resources Allelopathy occurs in some plantsgtmake chemicals coming out of roots to clear zones around each individuals Random Dispersion no pattern no particular attractionrepulsion Demography study of population s vital statistics and how they change over time interested in birthdeath rates life expectancy emigrationimmigration Birth rateshave large effects Large populationsmore individuals with pregnancy potential grows faster predators and waste accumulation Life table track organism s life Mbest way to make life table Survivorship curveslow death rate early even death rates across ages a lot of death early on many offspring Lab Msomatic cells produce 2 identical cells M gametes sex cells produce 4 distinct cells M 1 set of chromosomes M 2 sets Cancer cells uncontrollable mitotic division maybe telomeres not shortening Ch 45 Cont Population growth growth potential of population abundant resourceshigh potential to grow eX Bacteria generate indiViduals very rapidly with binary fission asexual process in ideal conditions would fill Earth unlimited population growth continue in nature No What happens when population grows Factors limit growth Biotic predators disease etc and abiotic drought etc Per capita rate of increase change in population sizebirthsimmigrantsdeathsemigrants IncreasebirthB immigration DecreasedeathD emigration Equation ANAtBDbNmNNbmNr per capita per indiVidual birth rate number of offspring produced per aV indiVidual per unit time Population ecologists interested in bmr per capita rate of increase rgt0growth rlt0decrease r0same Zero Population Growth ZPG Instantaneous growth rate dNdtfinstN rinstinstantaneous rate of increase Exponential population growth increasing ideal conditions What happens With EPG results in J shaped growth curve reaches limitations not sustainable and characterizes introduced and rebounding species African Elephants dNdtrmaxN Carrying CapacityEPG not sustainable more realistic population model Kmaximum population size that can be supported in an environment Varied With limiting resources Interspecific competitionbetween different species Intraspecific speciesbetween organisms of same species