Popular in Introduction to U.S. Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 40 page Reader was uploaded by Anjali Ahuja on Sunday September 21, 2014. The Reader belongs to 110 at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Introduction to U.S. Politics in Political Science at Kansas.
Reviews for POLS110unit#1notes.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/21/14
POLS 110 Textbook American Government Roots and Reform 2012 Election Edition Pearson O Connor Karen Larry J Sabato Weekly study sessions Ms Shea and Mr Watson My poliscilab through your blackboard discussion section Uses TopHat check blackboard or log into TopHat to check if you are enrolled Course code 915885 Exams and quizzes will be online On syllabus the date next to assignment is when they are DUE Course Objectives 1 2 3 Constitution Institution Public policy Political Behavior What is politics Who gets what when and how definition Politics is about conflict 0 Scarce resources o Disagreement over values Conflict between goals o Who wins who loses Politics is a way to resolve conflict o Government manages conflict Scarce resources we are usually fighting over things like oil water food Who should be in charge What happens when someone breaks the rules How do we respond to rioting Approval ratings for Congress are some of the lowest levels we have ever seen The people we vote for are representing us in Congress Important to pay attention to current events because teacher ties class in with events Do before next lecture Buy textbook package at KU bookstore Download and save syllabus Register for TopHat Look at disc Section Bb register with MyPoliSciLab Complete weekly assignments Chapter one Context of American Politics The way other countries view us that we try to tell them how to govern and be free I What types of things should government do for us o Maintain order o Maintain freedom o Protect and promote equality I Conflict between goals How much government should we have I Is government too powerful I Disagreement o Liberals and conservatives o Economic and morality issues Economic issues More gov t less gov t Morality issues More gov t communication orderequality conservative order less gov t liberal equality libertarian freedom How should gov t work I Who should govern o Autocracy single ruler o Oligarchy group rules o Democracy gov t by people Directindirect I Who should participate 0 Universal participation o Political equality o Majority rule o Public opinion o Pluralism competing groups Role of rules I Structural rules o How things work o Procedures o Institutions I Policy rules o The decisions that are made o Favor majority party Chapter 2 The Constitution Articles of Confederation I 1777 15 attempt at a written set of guidelines I Goal central government given little power o Had just got independence from Britain did not want a king or anything too powerful I 1781 ratified by states I Produced weak central government o Set up the opposite government compared to when Britain was in power I Set up first national congress Problems with Articles of Confederation I No power to tax no revenue o Under Britain s rule they were taxed with no permission o Without taxes there was no revenue coming in I No regulation of commerce 0 States could basically do what they want when they want with trade o They could trade with other countries too because there was no national government to tell them not to I States established their own military o No national way to control a military I No single leader o States had their own gov ts o Were run by a congress didn t want one leader I No judicial system Constitution I Constitutional Convention 1787 o Purpose revise Articles BUT they found so many flaws with the Articles that they ended up doing away with them and creating the Constitution 0 Secret meetings over four months Secret because it was considered treason I Constitution o 15 complete national constitution 0 Set structural rules o Plan strong central gov t Characteristics and Motives of the Framers I All wealthy white males 55 0 Mostly young o Half were slave owners o Educated elite I Social motives o Maintain social order which benefited them Economic motives o Maintain property rights which benefited them Debates Constitution I How to set up branches of gov t I Houses of congress o How to count population for representation and taxation I Executive o How much power to give president o How many boundaries to set up I Courts Final Product I Goals o Protect individual rights o Retain majority rule o Ensure order I Electoral rules o Elect representatives o Fixed terms of office I Divided authority o Branches of gov t I Formal boundaries 0 Bill of Rights How Democratic is the Constitution I Slavery o The framers still owned slaves o Wanted freedom but didn t recognize that owning slaves took away their freedom I Suffrage o The right to vote o Supposed to be an equal country but only allowed some people to vote 0 Only white wealthy males who owned property could vote I Election of president I Choosing senators I Equal representation in Senate I Judicial power I Congressional power I Book by Dahl o Why should we Americans uphold our Constitution o Should we change it Federalism I Distinctions between federal and state powers I Different types of systems 0 Unitary all power with federal gov t o Confederacy power with states 0 Federal combination division of power between national gov t and sub national gov t How many gov ts exist in the US I 1 US gov t I 555000 state gov ts I Then 0 Localgovts County Municipal Townships School districts Special districts Government Powers I Nation o Enumerated expressed powers Supremacy clause o Implied powers Elastic cause I States o Reserved Powers 10 Amendment o Powers not delegated to federal gov t by Constitution nor prohibited to the states are reserved to states Cooperative federalism I States and national governments need to share responsibility I Marble Cake analogy o The layers intermingle with our national government and state government I Costsbenefits of division of power 0 Cost we do not know who is in charge at times o Benefit more support I Who is in charge Disaster Relief I Need communication and coordination among all levels of gov t localstatefederal I Example Hurricane Sandy Fall 2012 Powers of National Gov t State Gov t or Shared I Powers o Govern marriage laws o Protect rights of citizens 0 Set rules for immigration Borrow money Determine qualifications of voters Set traffic standards Declare war Punish Iawbreakers Conduct elections Printcoin money Levycollect taxes Establishmaintain schools Set up a post office Protect public health OOOOOOOOOOO National Gov t Powers I Declare war Create and maintain armed forces Establish foreign policy Regulate interstate and foreign trade Make copyright and patent laws Establish postal offices Coin money Powers to both national and state Raise taxes Provide for public welfare Criminal justice Borrow money Charter banks Build roads State Establish local gov ts Establish and maintain schools Regulate trade within states Conduct elections Provide for public safety Marijuana laws I How aggressive should federal gov t enforcement be when state laws contradict federal laws TYPE IN SARAH S NOTES FROM PHONE Federalism I Constitution Article 1 section 8 enumerated federal powers I Elastic Clause Necessary and Proper Clause to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the gov t of the US or in any department or officer thereof o Implied powers I Supremacy Clause o Constitution Article VI Paragraph 2 o Federal law supersedes state laws when a conflict exists I This Constitution and the laws of the US which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of the US shall be the supreme law of the land and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding Should federal funding go to religious schools I Lemon Test o Is the gov t secular o Does the aid promote or endorse religion o Is there excessive government entangled with religion ABSC 360 Unit 1 82814 Pavlov set the ground for behavioral science Before Watson came around introspection was being used People would sit and think about themselves and analyze it Watson was sick of this Watson and Reiner puts cat in box cat figures out how to get out of box Gets quicker and quicker each time If something is pleasing you are likely to do it again It something is annoying you are likely to not do it again Classical Pavlovian Conditioning Before dog bell nothing During dog food bell salivation After dog bell salivation CONDITIONED Behavioral theorv Operative Conditioning Stimulus 9 response 9 reinforcement Discriminating stimulus response reinforcing stimulus Positive punishment rat presses lever receives shock Probably won t touch lever again GIVES SOMETHING POSITIVE Negative punishment speeding in car pulled over and gets ticket Won t speed TAKING SOMETHING AWAY NEGATIVE Experimental Basics I Independent variable IV I Dependent variable DV 0 Operational definition o Behavioral science prefers to use specific measures Cause 9 effect Manipulated 9 measured lndep 9 dependent It began at the beginning I Skinner and Heron 1937 o The effects of certain drugs and hormones on conditioning and extinction I Holz Azrin and Ayllon 1963 o Elimination of behavior of mental patients by response produced extinction I Ferster and DeMyer 1961 o Increased performances of and autistic child with a prochlorperazine administration The Kindling I Pharmacology I Amenable to operant procedures o Already used to animal research o Continuousobjective measurement The Spark I Skinner pushing application o Psychiatric patients Belmont Hospital Lindsley o Teaching Machines Boston public schools Azrin o Pharmacology Harvard Medical School Dews I Dews MD PhD New at Harvard Medical School Department of Pharmacy Krayer Toured Skinner s lab OOOO The Flame I The Journal of Pharmacology Spread I Joe Brady Walter Reed Medical Center Institute for Behavioral Research Johns Hopkins University Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit University of Maryland NASA OOOOO Keeping the Home Fires Going I Bob Schuster o Studied with Brady at University of Maryland University of Michigan University of Chicago NIDA director 19861992 Wayne State University Rate Dependence Sef administration OOOOOO Modern History 9214 Some Basic Pharmacology Drug Dose Definition o Very difficult to define a drug imperfect definition but it doesn t really matter o Definition a substance that alters the physiology of the body but is not a food or nutrient Chemical name o Chemists use this name It is helpful to know what it is made out of 0 Example 7 choro 13 dihydro 1 1methy 5 pheny 2H 1 4 benzodiazepin 2 one Generic name o Diazepam Valium is the trade name Trade name 0 Valium o Patented to one specific company so the other one cannot specifically sell Valium Metric system Milligram MgKg Drugs are measured using the metric system VERY precisely measured to the size of the animal o US is the only country that uses the old English system not even England Dose response o ED5O effective dose for half of the animals that used that dose the other half didn t feel effects o Therapeutic effect o A toxic effect for example painkillers a toxic effect is vomiting TD5O half of drug users threw up or had a toxic effect o Lethal effect LD5O half of the drug users died o Dose response curve for alcohol No effect 9 giddy 9 sleep 9 deep sleep 9 unconscious 9 labored breathing 9 death OOOO o Dose response increase slowly o Potency How much of the drug you need to get the desired effect Effect at ED5O o Effectiveness Maximum effect at any dose o Effects Primary effect drug is taken for Side other effects o Viagra example Developed as a blood pressure medication I Side effect was men who couldn t have erections did They wanted it for the erections so they marketed it differently Interaction I Antagonism o Increase ED5O o 223 o Tolerance o Less effective than it normally would I Additive o Decrease ED5O o Example you need less alcohol if you already took a sedative o An even increasedecrease thing 224 I Super additivepotentiation o Decrease ED5O o 225 o Big combined effect I Takes a while maybe a few days maybe a few weeks for a therapeutic drug to take effect and work I Effects rise starts to fade out rise again then has the therapeutic window Pharmacokinetics how drugs get in your system how they react once in your system and how they leave the system I Routes of administration o Injection used in the laboratory often Parenteral o Subcutaneous sc under the skin o Intramuscular im in the muscle o lntraperitoneal ip in parenteral cavity Intravenous iv in the vein 0 inhaled gases smoke intranasal snorting o lots of capillaries in the nose that the drug is delivered through o oral peroral po swallowed o rectal a drug through anal administration works really quickly o transdermal through the skin example nicotine patch Around and out I distribution o lipid solubility o bloodbrain barrier activepassive transport I excretion o kidneys filtering o liver modification enzymes metabolism digestive system 9 liver o less toxic o more easily excreted modifies a drug when it goes through it becomes a metabolite o generally drug travels away from drug Drug Development I 1215 years 6 12 years discoverypreclinicaltoxicology 1 12 years phase 1 clinical trials healthy adults 2 years phase 2 patient population small scale 3 12 years phase 3 patient population large scale 0 1 2 years FDA approval I Success rate 0 Chemists may come up with about one thousand compound 0 30 show some promise 0 Out of those 30 only about 3 go through phase 1 0 Out of those 3 only 1 will go to the market I For an average drug it costs anywhere from 800 million to 17 billion OOOO If you were using an IV injection to administer a drug how much more of the drug would be consumed into the body compared to other forms of the drug like IM or orally taking it Not a clear answer it depends drug to drug Research Design I Independent variable IV Basics o What you manipulate Dependent variable DV 0 Changes as a result of IV Experimental control 0 Changes IV DV changes 0 Only way to infer causality I Withinsubject design o Each subject is own control Betweensubject design o Test v control subject Statistics Placebo and Bias Placebo o Looks like IV o Is not the IV Placebo effect o You are not in the test group o You are the person given the sugar pills o Subject is given the placebo acts like they are given the IV Drug studies control for placebo effect Experimenter bias Clever Hans was a horse that could do math Double blind don t tell the experimenter or the subject what the controls are this reduces Non experimental research No IV manipulated Correlation not causation Testing in animals Unconditioned behavior Open field o Recording how much the animal moves around in the open box 0 Stereotypy o With some drugs if you give too much of it the animal just starts to shake Inclined planerotorod o To test their endurance and strength Elevated plus maze just how it sounds maze shaped like a cross Paw lick latency o You cannot ask a rat how much pain they are in but you can manipulate the temperature on this machine and as it gets hotter the rat licks their paw this is an easy way to tell how a drug affects their pain tolerance Base startle response I Prepulse response give a little tone before the big tone and the person is less surprised Respondent conditioning Animals operant conditioning I Stimulus 9 response 9 reinforcer I Schedules o Ratio Fixed FR Variable VR Progressive PR gets harder and harder lets you know how much the animal is willing to work for this reward BEST at assessing abuse liability o Interval Fixed Fl Variable VI Operant Paradigms I Drug discrimination o First train an animal to press certain lever for no drug and press the other lever for the drug o You can tell the subjective effects of drugs on animals from training them to press the salinecocaine drug o Morphine the animal would say it feels more like saline than cocaine I Progressive ratio this is how they assess abuse liability o If animals respond at HIGH progressive ratios this is a drug that people would abuse I Punishment I Avoidance o An animal has a shock that is about to be coming o Anti anxiety drugs Drug testing Human I Perception 0 Did you like the drug Can you feel this stimuluscan you see this stimuus o Absolute threshold smallest stimulus you can feelsee o Difference threshold I Cognitive performance 0 Memory test to see if a drug affects an individual s ability to remember things short term or long term o Inhibition I Motor performance o Walking a straight line I Driving Dissociation I Statedependentlearning I Learn in one state you are not going to do well in another state 0 Example studying drunk probably won t remember sober o Big problem I used to do a little but a little wouldn t do it 9914 Tolerance I Repeated use o Decreased effectiveness o More of the drug is required to get the same effect I DSMIV I One of the main diagnostic criteria to tell if someone has a problem with a drug Tolerance I General nonspecific I Specific o Some drug effects I Tolerance for drug effects not drug I Tolerance dissipates with nonuse I Functional disturbance o Tolerance develops quicker if effect harmed individual Types of Tolerance I Metabolic o Body able to metabolize and eliminate drug faster o General I Physiological o Body changes to compensate 0 Specific I Acute o Tolerance during a single administration Behavioral Tolerance I Respondent classical conditioning o Same as drug o Compensatory effects of a drug are conditioned o Addicts want to avoid using drugs but cues and triggers give them the opposite effect of euphoria Paraphernalia acts as a trigger o Conditioned drug tolerance I Operant conditioning o Tolerance in behavior s performed when on drug Discontinuing Use I Withdrawal o Physiological effects as a product of stopping use I Hangover o Aftermath of acute drug effects I Physiological dependence dependence o Discontinuation of drug causes withdrawal o Compulsive drug taking I Psychological dependence Opponent Processes I The combination of two processes determine reaction to drug o A Processes Quick evoked by drug o B Processes Slower evoked by A Process opposite o With repetition A Process lessens B Process increases Sensitization I Effect of drug increases with repeated administrations Does not dissipate with time Environment specific Mesolimbic dopamine system o Responsible reinforcing effects of drugs I Some explain drug abuse via sensitization Expectation etc I Placebo I Nocebo o Negative effects or side effects of the drug I Self administration o Larger effect in brain I Novel environments o Larger effect The brain in less than an hour I Glial cells o Not excitable o Structure I Neurons o Excitable Meaning they can actual transmit information from point A to point B Ion Analyze and transmit information Communicate very well a large network Each neuron is attached to a pile of cells thousands of connections Dendrites Receivers of information o Axon Conducting fiber once the message is there it moves fast o Myelin sheath Insulating fatty layer that speeds transmission o Axon terminals Transmitters o Schwann s cells They make the myelin OOOO Resting potential o Negative charge Ion pump Diffusion o High concentration 9 low Electrostatic charge Action potential Depolarization o Membrane potential moves towards zero Hyperpolarization o Membrane potential moves away from zero Threshold o Depolarize over certain amount o Ion channels dump o Ion pumps restore balance Action potential o firing o Very quick 100s per sec AP moves away from site of stimulation Constant speed ms Post synaptic pontential when reaches axon terminal o Cell bodydendrite o Slows sensation Synapse o Axon terminal 9 dendrite Presynaptic axon terminal sending cell Post synaptic dendrite receiving cell Calcium enters channels Surrounds vesicles Vesicles release neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter binds to receptor puzzle piece I Change in postsynaptic cell o Open sodium NA channel o Depolarization I inhibition 0 K leave or CL in o Hyperpolarization makes it harder for AP to fire I Cells remaining in cleft o Enzymes destroys o Reabsorbed reuptake I Second messengers o Less direct Neurotransmitters I Drugs and neurotransmitters o Same site same effect agonism Results in same effect as that neurotransmitter Same sitte no effect antagonist Reuptake Alter second messenger activity Interfere with ion channels Change amount of neurotransmitter from AP OOOOO Some neurotransmitters of interest I Acetylcholine o Acetylcholinesterase enzyme Insecticides o Receptor sites Nicotine I Biogenic amines E NE DA and 5HT o Tyrosine 9 L Dopa 9 Dopamine Dopamine 9 norepinephrine 9 epinephrine o Tryptophan 9 serotonin Amphetamines cause leakage Cocaine and antidepressants block reuptake More neurotransmitters or interest I GABA o Inhibits everything o Barbiturates and benzos Valium enhance inhibition I Glutamate o Excitatory o Alcohol solvents and PCP block glutamate excitation I Peptides o Amino acids o Opioids bind to these receptors Nervous System I CNS central is brain and spinal cord I PNS peripheral is everything else o Somatic sensory and motor conscience control o Autonomic no conscience control Sympathetic stress o Epinephrineadrenaline o Cocaine amphetamine Parasympathetic normal activity o ACh o Atropine dilate eyes I Medulla o Coordinates with spinal cord and PNS o Alcohol barbiturates opiates depress breathing I Reticular formation o Reticular activating system arousal cortex GABA o Raphne system sleep Serotonin I Pons locus coeruleus o Arousal fear panic anger Valium 9 GABA 9 calm Amphetamine 9 ACh 9 anxious I Cerebellum o Balance I Basal ganglia 0 motor loop with thalamus and cortex o Parkinson s I Periaqueductal grey o Pain and punishment o Opiates receptors I Limbic system o Associated with rewards o Ventral tegmental area with nucleus accumbens reinforcement o Hippocampus memory o Hypothalamus Regulatoryrelay Eating drinking pleasure Looking at the brain I EEG o Electrical activity in brain o Good termporal but limited spatial resolution o Radioactive tracers radioactive cameras o Poor spatial recognition o Big ol magnet o Limited temporal resolution EC opportunity Sexuality study in Dole 407 Sign up on ABSC 360 Bb EC link CANlabkuedu The Devil Made Me Do It Before mid 1800s I Drunk or high people were called inebriates I Alcohol was being okay but being drunk and everything else was NOT okay Disease I American Association for the Cure of lnebriates 1870 o nebriety is a disease Strictly humanitarian concerns Treat rather than punish Doctors already dealing with opioid addiction Addiction replaced inebriety I Alcoholics Anonymous mid20 century o Jellineck 1960 The Disease Concept of Alcoholism I Alcoholism declared a disease o In 1951 by WHO o In 1953 by AMA o Eventually included all drug addiction a disease I Predisposition o Inherited Jelinek Like an allergy o Mechanism unclear o one drink one drunk one drink is likely to make you an alcoholic if you have it in your genes Loss of control Addict for life I Exposure based Oops 0 Starts as casual use 0 Changes in brain structure o Addiction becomes inevitable Addiction I DSM lV TR o substance dependence and substance abuse o Dependence Need higherdose Withdrawal symptoms Attempts to quit o Abuse Can t meet obligations Legal problems Persistent socialpersonal problems I DSM5 o substance use disorder Moderate Severe I Most definitions include o Impaired control over use o Harmful consequences 0 Chronic relapsing Dependence Model I Physiological dependence o Physical withdrawal o Compulsive seIf administration addiction o Negative reinforcement o Problem can be dependent wo addiction I Psychological dependence o Compulsive use o Lack of observable withdrawal symptoms o Problems I Circular reasoning Can be addicted without physical dependence Positive Reinforcement Model I Drugs act as reinforcers o Increases frequency of behavior that produced it I Self administration o Patterns like other reinforcers o Animals will even work for drugs that no not cause withdrawal symptoms I Placebo o If drug is reinforcing it will be chosen over placebo I Paradox o Drugs and other reinforcers can have eventual aversive consequences Food 9 obesity Unprotected sex 9 STISTD unwanted pregnancy I Why o Immediate reinforcement vs delayed punishment o Delayedinfrequent consequences have less ability to control behavior Value I Drugdose o Different abuse potential o Higher dose more reinforcing I Genetics Relief of symptoms I Task demands o Ask someone if they like a drug but it depends what they have to do afterwards o This affects how much they like a drug 0 Lay in a chair sedative vs amphetamine I Stress o Messes with hormone levels I Deprivation o If you do not have access to a drug you tend to like it more 0 With animals when they do not have food they like a drug more Drugs and food likely use the same reward center I Previous experience o Same class o Same drug I Relief of withdrawal Primingconditioned Sr I Extended access o If someone has a lot of experience with a drug and they have it for a while They either like it more and more Or they like it even less and get bored of it Motivation I Attraction to stimulus incentive I System that controls motivation 1 Activate behavior 2 Guide bx behavior toward goal 1 Imbalancedeficiency 9 activation in midbrain 2 Learning and memory system I Thalamus cortex amygdala hippocampus I Behavior guided toward past stimuli Drugs as Reinforcers I Control behavior with same mechanisms as natural Sr eg food o Stimulate mesolimbic dopamine system I BUT o No satiation mechanism o Drugs get to brain more quickly o Higher dopamine levels I Stress o Increased stress hormones 9 increased dopamine o Intensifies reinforcing effect o Even after stressful stimulus is removed Drugs and the Brain I Incentive Sensitization Theory o Sensitization to behavioral effects Attentional bias Compulsive craving o With repeated exposure Due to increased activity of mesolimbic dopamine system I Incentive salience Easily noticed by organism Motivated behavior directed toward it Increases with repeated use Neural changes similar to learning and memory Longlasting consequences on brain OOOO Smashed hammered crashed pissed bombed loaded plastered tanked 91814 Alcohol History I Fruit has high sugar content Ripens alcohol content increases Taste smell paired w nourishment Distilling about 10000 years ago Fermenting about 9000 years ago China Ancient Egyptians Greeks Romans o Lead poisoning fall of Roman Empire I Romans 9 Brits 9 colonies 18 19 century I Temperance Movement o Dr Benjamin Rush o Physical social moral effects o Religion I Prohibition o 18 amendment 1917 o Organized crime o Ended in 1933 0 Cut alcohol consumption approximately in half Alcohol in the Body I Blood alcohol concentration BAC o Blood sample breathalyzer I Absorption o Firstpass metabolism stomach o Alcohol food lower absorption o More time in stomach more time for enzymes to work o Alcohol dehydrogenase But same BAC peak and return to zero Tagamet Zantac lowers stomach acid which raises BAC Women have less enzyme than men Beer leaves stomach more slowly I Higher concentration faster absorption Alcohol in and out of the body I Distribution o Almost entirely in water o Easily crosses bloodbrain barrier o Circulates through lungs vaporizes I Elimination o Breath sweat tears urine feces 0 9098 metabolized by liver Slower for nondrinkers Increased by food Neuropharmacology I Intoxication requires higher concentration than other drugs I GABA principal inhibitor o Alcohol 9 decreased brain activity o More dopamine released I Glutamate excitatory o Blocked by alcohol I Hippocampus memory formation o Alcohol interferes I Prefrontal cortex impulse control attention planning problemsolving o Impaired by alcohol Effects on the body I Dilation of capillaries 9 flushed skin o Heat lost through skin I Inhibition of antidiuretic hormone ADH o Increased urination o Water loss Behavior and Performance I Subjective effects o Low doses as BAC increases elationeuphoria o High doses as BAC lowers sedation anger depression I Perception o Low doses decreased taste smell o High doses decreased vision pain sensitivity I Performance o Slowed reaction time o Deficits in handeye coordination o Off balance Nauseavomiting I Impaired memory o Particulatly storage I Blackouts o No memory between two points in time o Memory not in long term storage I Grayouts o Bits and pieces of events while drinking rememberedretrieved I Disinhibition inability to withhold behavior o Disregard for Personal risk Social norms Longterm consequences Nonhuman behavior I Dose dependence o Response rates increase at low doses o Decrease at high doses I Less sensitive to shock I Easily discriminated from saline barbiturates Tolerance I Acute o During single administration I Chronic o Develops in a few weeks o Increases of 30 50 required I Behavioral o Repeated exposure practice Withdrawal I Two stages o First stage early minor syndrome 812 hours after heavy drinking Agitation tremors Muscle cramps Vomiting sweating Irregular heartbeat Lasts about 48 hours 2 mortality rate 0 Second stage delirium tremens DTs 2 days after minor symptoms Disorientation confusion Hallucinations Possible seizures Lasts about seven to ten days 8 mortality rate I Treatment supportive care drugs to suppress wd symptoms Sef administration I Non humans o Oral administration difficult due to taste o Will respond for alcohol if sweetened o IV selfadministration is erratic I Humans o Cultural Finandspreedrinker France steady throughout the day 0 Sex Heavy drinkers are usually male 0 Age Older 9 just as frequently less each time I Problem drinker 9 loss of control physical dependence alcoholic Acute effects I BAC 3 4 loss of consciousness I BAC 5 6 death within 12 hours o Respiratory failure I Lethal dose close to social dose o Narrow therapeutic window Chronic effects I Liver o Cirrhosis o Eventually can t function o 4090 of cirrhosis deaths in US due to alcohol o More than five drinks per day for five years I Nervous system 0 Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome Memory loss and confusion o Epilepsy o Cerebellar syndrome ataxia o Alcoholic dementia I Alcohol use is causally related to cancers of the o Mouth o Throat o Colon 0 Liver I Reproduction o Impotence shrinking testicles loss of sexual interest o Irregular menstruation failure to ovulate o FASD fetal alcohol syndrome low birth weight Heart disease Any benefits Lowers risk of heart attack in men 0 Up to two drinksday Type 2 diabetes 0 Up to two drinksday Lowers risk of ischemic stroke in elderly woman 0 Up to two drinksday All correlational Any benefits are offset by risk of addiction PSYC 350 What is abnormal Two Primary Approaches I Cultural Relativism Abnormal as deviance o Abnormal defined relative to one s culture Premise there is no absolute standard of mental healthillness Abnormal is simply whatever deviates from cultural norms Examples homosexuality workaholism Nazi Germany shamanistic visions culture has clear role in shaping perceptions of normaity some disorders seem specific to specific cultures bulimia E doesn39t explain why some disorders exist in all cultures E ignores relevant scientific information about abnormality E doesn39t permit cross cutura comparisons eg Pinker OOOOOOOO Variation on Theme Abnormal Statistical Deviance I Homosexuality used to be recorded as a mental illness in the DSM until 1973 I Polynesian example 0 When someone says quotYou have gained weight they would take it as a compliment because it means they have money to eat a lot of food and if someone would say that in the US we would take it as an insult o 70 of American adults are overweight it is not a good thing or a status marker to be overweight It is associated with lower status because unhealthy food is cheap 0 Being overweight until 100 years ago or so was an indicator that you have resources and have money In groupOut Group We seem to be instinctively tribalistic throughout the world we pick in and out groups quickly Example Allen Fieldhouse the way we talk about Mizzou compared to the way we talk about KU We are a part oflayhawk Nation and so Mizzou people are in our out group Another example 911 we feel more emotional pain and empathy for those who died compared to how we feel about the Indonesian tsunami even though people died there too It is because in a way Indonesia is an out group for us ll Harmful Dysfunction Abnormal behavior represents failuredisease of designed function it39s a dysfunction disrupted biological and psychological mechanisms of adaptive behavior Also regarded as harmful influenced by culture values Scientific part Pro potential to compare and analyze behavior across cultures I Pro richly informed by biology neurosciences etc I Pro still acknowledges a role for culture via harm criterion I Con not always a mechanism we can yet identify narcissism o We cannot pin point an area in the brain where selfidentity is Historical Perspectives on abnormality Supernaturalism versus naturalism I Pervasiveness of supernatural interpretation of world mental events 1 natural events no conscious agent intuitive physics 2 supernatural events caused by agents intuitive psychology agents have intention purpose I Default assumption mind body dualism Paul Bloom o Every culture recognized mind body dualism o Essentially in every human there is a supernatural mind that inhabits a body possessed and controls the body but it is NOT part of the body it goes away when they are sleepingdie Suggests that the mind is a nonmaterial spirit that possesses and controls body but isn t a physical part of it o From a scientific standpoint mind body dualism is FALSE I Until about 2500 years ago as best we can tell anyone who ever lived had a supernaturalistic world view that the world was governed by supernatural agents I Paul Bloom every child comes into this world with intuitive physics o Basically children are genetically programmed to figure out laws of physics gravity when in doubt we look to agency I Trees example if you hear something rustling in the woods we assume it is an animal when it could be wind or a branch I If we don t assume agents enough it could be dangerous for us We could get attacked I On the other hand if you assume more things are agents you might get paranoid o But sometimes these agents are good Such as thinking you have a guardian angel Fusiform Gyrus I Dedicated collection of circuits that recognize in facial recognition If you change the brain you can change the mind This goes against mind body dualism because if the mind is changed by a drug for example in the brain it is supposed to be separate We can look at brain wave patterns to see how someone is reacting to something If you believe in mind body dualism if someone has a mental disorder it has to do with some supernatural event like being possessed by a ghost or another agent If mental disorder most likely looked at morally evil because they quotlet a demon into the body rather than that there is an illness wrong with them o I Trephination o If someone seems mentally deranged there is probably a supernatural entity in there et s drill a hole in the skull and make sure it comes out o Some people actually survived and healed I Ancient Greek naturalists Thales 6quot century bc o If we observe and apply logic we can actually describe the universe mathematically o Things aren t supernatural anymore it is made out of quotstuf more logical approach o Believing something else based on someone else s quotsay so I Hippocrates 5 century bc often regarded as father of medicine or modern medicine o First to apply naturalism to human mindbody o Four essential humors blood phlegm yellow bile black bile I If you have too much black bile you become depressed I If someone had too much blood quotsanguine would be really upbeat and energetic I Too much phlegm they might be sluggish o Foreshadowed theory of neurochemical imbalance o Classification of disorders based on scientific observation o Emphasized role of stress and nutrition I First to make a connection between psychological condition and lifestyle food exercise the way a person takes care of oneself o Promoted humane treatment of mentally ill I For the first time in history someone who is mentally ill is sick rather than evil I First one to document someone with clinical depression o Typical treatment he would suggest instead of exorcism or a hole in the brain how about we shower them with compassion kindness a place where they get adequate nutrition and are safe o Something revolutionary happened Up to 23 of his mentally ill patients got better Breakthrough in psychology I very slow scientific progress for next 2000 years etiology where an illness came from the origin quotthe mind is what the brain does or the mind and brain are flipsides of a single underlying reality Fusiform gyrus Do antidepressants add more serotonin No that is not the primary problem in the first place It does tweak some circuitry but it doesn t increase serotonin Anything that changes my thoughts behavior body etc is changing my brain Hippocrates I homeostasis the body has lots of mechanisms to return to normalcy I A physician I Thinks there are lots of things that can injure the body ranging from high levels of stress to malnutrition but he felt like under most circumstances the body would heal itself on its own with a fighting change I He noticed that most of what passed in his day for medical treatment was HARMFUL I Doing harm to the mentally ill was normal Middle Ages 6th century ad 16 century Neo Patonic otherworldly emphasis matter not real o Multiverse Return to supernaturalism demon possession Malleus Maleficarum quotThe Witch39s Hammer If you are accused of being a witch of being possessed it is for sure They would probably die through tests of witchcraft Think they recanted if they died from the tests no harm no foul When the classical world went into the middle ages they LOST MOST OF THE ANCIENT GREEK TEXTS like Aristotle Hippocrates etc the manuscripts were either burned or lost European Renaissance 14 17 century Rediscoverty of classical Greek texts from Islamic Middle East o They get the texts back Avicenna Ibn Sina Persian genius 11 c Canon of Medicine Genius at sixteen Excelled in astronomy Wanted to be a doctor Within two years became leading physician in that realm Single handedly deduces the germ theory of disease WITHOUT a microscope I Determined microscopic diseases and germs are the cause of illness o Invents the field of pharmacology basically o Creates a text the best medical textbook for the next 500 years o Interested in psychiatry Johann Weyer o German physician o Basically calls quotbushit on massive witch hunt project says mentally ill are not possessed or witches they are ill o Big fan of Avicenna OOOOO Asylum Movement 17 18 century Bethlehem Hospital bedlam o A good fundraising technique they would charge admission to see the quotcrazy people o Take a tour and make a family event out of it o Staff would poke and prod patients to do crazy things Philippe Pinel 1793 humanitarian reform in Paris o Says if this is going to be a hospital it has to be a good environment treated with respect and like they are important o Starts humanitarian reform William Tuke 1796 quotmoral treatment movement in England o Particularly affected by this movement because he was part of a Nordic community he was a quaker o His friend DIED in treatment affected him so much he set up hospitals for the mentally ill where they are treated with passion and care and warmth Benjamin Rush early 1800s hybrid medicalmoral treatment o Father of American psychiatry o Friend of Thomas Jefferson o John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died 50 years to the DAY after signing the Declaration of Independence on July 4 Brings the moral treatment movement to AMERICA He is a trained physician but this means he has been trained to TORTURE Bleeding spinning blistering water quottherapy restraint chair poision emetics terror Alternative quotmora treatment compassion nutrition care o He was still torturing people he could not truly establish moral treatment In mental hospitals they would put them in ice cold water spin them around in chairs random stuff to try to cure them OOOO Plato was not a naturalist was a hardcore dualist Said only thing real about you was your non material mind says everything around us is not reality the only communication you have with it is through our soul and our mind ignore science it is all tainted anyway Emphasis on the real world where we will go after our bodies will go Advent of mental hospitals 19 century beyond Medical model bleeding spinning blistering water quottherapy restraint chair poison emetics terror Alternative quotmora treatment compassion nutrition low stress work exercise community Dr Thomas Kirkbride Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane 18401883 o Asylum medicine trained with medical model of treatment Dorothea Dix Mental Hygiene Movement o Sunday school teacher in Massachusetts trained as a nurse o Had a lot of alcoholics in family bad childhood spend time at an asylum oversees o Wanted to see how mentally ill were treated in Massachusetts III o Local cities were branching out to mom and pop places for local care facilities unregulated completely o Visiting these places and saw horrific abuses patients kept in chains left in own filth etc o Brought it to attention to news and gov t she made recommendations how about we follow the Kirkbride plan o It worked money was set aside She raised a ton of money and lots of hospitals were built along this plan Confirmation bias need to look up what this is V 20 Century Developments Biologicalmedical model Emil Kraepelin 1983 first systematic classification first to classify schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Kraepelin found out what Alzheimer39s was but let his partner take the name of the disease Cerebral syphilis general paresis 2 39 or 3quotquot leading cause of mental illness at the time early or late adulthood would have deterioration of mental functions it happened to be untreated syphilis infection severely disrupts mental function Brain damaging therapy ECT insulin coma metrazol lobotomy Psychoanalytic model Freud 1900 On the Interpretation of Dreams Mental Health Professionals Psychiatrist MD 1 4 years med school 4 years residency 2 Acceptance rate is about 40 but most pre meds quit before applying 3 Median salary 170000 4 Focus med management quick med checks 9 low satisfaction 5 Low status among medical specialties growing shortage Clinical psychologist PhD 1 PhD takes average of six years to complete 2 Acceptance rate estimated 4050 typically apply to 10 programs 3 Median salary is about 85000 higher in private practice research settings 4 Focus psychotherapy andor assessment 5 Highest status among therapists ClinicalCounseling Psychologist 1 PsyD professional degree no research 5 years to complete 2 Lower statussalary than PhD 3 Most training in quotfor profit institutes not universities no financial aid Psychiatric nurse practitioner DSN 1 3year doctoral degree in nursing 2 Very high acceptance rates for those with BSN and nursing experience 3 Median salary about 100000 4 Focus med management Social worker MSW 1 2year master39s degree 2 Acceptance rates gt70 3 Median salary about 55000 4 Focus psychotherapy I Master39s level psychologist MA 1 2year master39s degree 2 Acceptance rate gt80 3 Median salary is quite low because there are so many of those about 40000 4 Focus psychotherapy usually under doctorallevel supervision I Rehabilitation specialist clinical case manager BA 1 Entry level jobs for psych majors 2 Low salary 2530k 3 High burnout Understanding Mental Illness Timeline of Major Theoretical Influences bioogica bioogica behaviora 9 cognitive psychoanaytic 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 biological medical model Freud I Basically created psychotherapy o Did with postwar veterans o He had a method to talk about it o Also talk about past delve into unconscious history things you don t even know about yourself o quotshell shock PTSD o Psychoanalytic model became the major treatment for decades I Psychoanalytic model is referred to now as psychodynamic they kept the best of Freud and left the worst They kept the more scientific parts They do believe that childhood definitely affects a person that emotional life is important Freud was really big into the idea that we are not fully rational beings that we do things without knowing why I Least influential model TODAY I Even MEDICAL DOCTORS in the field switched from medical model to just talking to their patients I In 1940s 1950s PhD psychologists under the influence of behaviorists 0 Behaviorists environmental determinism o Means we are a product of our environment o We are born a blank slate that is shaped completely by environment o Since we are a product of the environment if we fix our environment we fix ourselves o Watson believed people don t even have thoughts he thought was covert speech o Skinner acknowledged people do have thoughts and feelings but they are private behaviors that do not mean anything o All behaviorists at this time believed it had ALL to do with environment 0 Behaviorism changed into a cognitive approach o Cognitive behavioral therapy Over 75 of mental health medicine is prescribed by NONSPECIALISTS not a psychiatrist not a mental health professional they get their info from drug reps Diagnostic ConsiderationsDSM Diagnosis medical model term implies the presence of disease In medicine when we apply the disease label it typically implies a A definitive set of symptoms syndrome implies there is something going on that you do not know collections of symptoms NOT diseases b Underlying mechanisms of disease process c Treatments that target disease mechanisms not just symptoms Diaqnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders American Psychiatric Association releases the DSM 1952 DSM I Height of Freudian influence a very Freudian document I Very heavy on theory little on science I Very vague hopelessly useless as a scientific document no reliabilityvalidity 1968 DSMll I Still had a lot of problems 1980 DSMIll I A REVOLUTON I The chair of DSMIII was a revolutionary why don t we have a document that is actually scientific I Symptoms checklist made sense I Have high interrater reliability I BIG improvement but still lots of problems I By DSM this became a huge CASH COW o Every therapist social worker etc had to have it 1994 DSMIV I A little improvement from III 2013 DSMV I The chair decided right off the bat sign in advance a full disclosure and confidentiality statement can t discuss ANY of this until the document is released o Coudn t tell anyone about it couldn39t get any feedback Things done in the dark usually don t turn out well A lot of people started protesting Chair of III and IV called BULLSHIT on this 5 said not listening went on their way Promised this is going to be better than ever turns out this is the worst document 2011 comes around they don t even have a draft out APA gets mad they are losing money from drug company ads in ourjournals drug companies are making less money WE NEED MONEY GET THE DOCUMENT OUT o It has all these problems but APA didn t care because they needed to get the document out o If they didn t get a document out by May 2013 they39ll lose contract so they release a crappy document OOOOO DSMV Controversies and Concerns I Poor inter rater reliability reliability as ratelimiting factor on validity o Means if you have any two clinicians trying to diagnose a mental illness they most likely would not agree o TOOK A STEP BACK I Ineptitude secrecy financial conflicts of interest Francis DSMIV chair o Almost every person in the committee was getting paid by med reps o Biases might make it easier to get medicine or diagnosed with something I Expansion of diagnoses prescribing griefdepression ADHD etc I Protests many now moving to alternate systems ICD 10 RDoC Major Depressive Disorder technical name in DSM DSM5 Diagnostic Criteria Depressed mood Loss of interestpleasure in activities anhedonia Change in sleep insomniahypersomnia Change in weightappetite Majority lose weight not gain People with winter depression usually crave sweet starchy comfort food Short term boost in energy following ingestion II39gtS quot Loss of energy Psychomotor retardationagitation Excessive guilt or worthlessness Concentration difficultydifficulty making decisions Thoughts of deathsuicidality young people report this suicidality more than older people Criteria for diagnosis was created about 40 years ago and is based on clinical research Lights up the PAIN CIRCUITS IN THE BRAIN o Physicalmental don t know it just hurts If someone goes home and says I have depression most people do not know the extent of it This is a devastating illness not just sadness LEADING CAUSE of disability at work school etc One of the leading causes of death suicide lose will to live FIVE OR MORE most of the day everyday symptoms to diagnose Typical depressive episode lasts for months even years Depressed children are often more focused on their physical discomfort and often don t have a good vocabulary enough to express their sadness I Cultures western people became fluent in labeling their emotional states in more eastern places East Asia for example have less of an emotional vocabulary and do not express emotions as much as in the west stigma I Over 50 of depressed people don t get help but most heal itself because of the body I Depression can cause BRAIN DAMAGE o There is a critical protective growth hormone in the brain BDNF o Starts slicing and dicing neurons DNA o Best evidence we have is that the area damaged by depression CAN BE REVERSED I Over 80 of clinically depressed individuals will have another episode at some point o If a person has had three or more episodes relapse rate is 90 o The longer depression is allowed to continue the easier it is for the brain to get tipped back to being depressed I S 9 Uquot DSM requires five or more of the above for greater than two weeks Major depression versus bereavement DSM5 dropped the two month grieving period I Clinicians do not diagnose depression if someone is grieving for a few months because this is normal to feel very depressed after loss of a loved one Prevalence Facts I Lifetime risk quot3923 but some new evidence shows it may be closer to 50 I 21 gender ratio femaemae but 11 during childhood old age o Testosterone has a moodelevating protective mode from depression o Conversely female reproductive hormones when they rapidly decline period post pregnancy there might be a depressiontriggering effect I Highest risk of onset age 1524 I Risk of relapse another depressive episode over 80 after 3 episodes gt90 I Risk increases with major loss events eg separation breakup failure events I Social support buffers against lossfailure risk Costs of Depression I 50 billion a year in medical expenses lost productivity Leading cause of disability up to age 50 Increased lifetime risk of heart disease dementia some cancers inflammation Neurotoxicity low BDNF damage to hippocampus basal ganglia frontal cortex o Low BDNF 9 oxidative stress from free radicals Decreased immune function Increased maritalrelationship discord divorce 300000 depression linked suicides NEED OTHER TWO BULLETS Facts about Antidepressants I 50 of people over age 12 are on antidepressants I If anything the depression epidemic has only gotten worse I 23 lifetime estimate is likely an understatement Slow wave sleep deep restorative sleep that our bodies crave I Memory consolidation I Cell repair Depression has a very close relationship with the brain s run away stress response fight or flight Sleep meds some of them don t seem to affect the stages of sleep But there is a class of sleep meds that involves Xanax Klonopin benzos etc suppresses slow wave sleep What is the single most prescribed psych med XANAX most potentially dangerous Depression continued Dr Ilardi began with a story about a girl who was depressed I Her friend began to list all of her good qualities to try to cheer her up I She thought in her head that it was so bothersome that she39d hang herself if he did not stop within ten seconds I Asked Dr Ilardi if this was normal He said it was because depressed people do not believe the good qualities about them I A lot of times when someone else lists out their good qualities they think of all the bad quah es I He said when a therapist or anyone asks them to list out their good qualities they hate it and it makes the situation worse compared to it cheering someone up who is just having a hard day I The best thing to do is to support them validate their emotions and just listen Rumination dwelling on something mostly thoughts of humiliation shame alienation etc I When someone comes along they start ruminating to their friend and the friend co ruminates I Both parties are dwelling on negative thoughts out loud THIS IS NOT HELPFUL IT IS HARMFUL I What is more helpful SHARED ACTIVITY o Anything to get themselves out of their head o Maybe exercise together go see a movie go to lunch anything to make them happy even a change of scenery Antidepressants I Can have a mentally analgesic effect o Turns down activity in amygdala o Dulls down high AND low emotions Suicide info I About 4 125 of depressed individuals commit suicide 7 men 1 women o Women attempt more than men but men use more lethal attempts so that is why more depressed men carry through with it Most suicide victims are clinically depressed up to 85 Best psychological predictor HOPELESSNESS Only about 110 suicide attempts fatal Over 50 of all suicides in US involve firearms o Firearm suicides account for MORE deaths than homicides o In a house with firearms present there is a greater suicide risk for EVERYONE in the home Women are twice as likely to attempt a fourth as likely to have fatal attempt Lethality of attempt goes up with age Estimate about 2 of all suicides involve alcohol or another dis inhibiting agent Faith has a lot to do about it o Some suicidal depressed people are just scared God would quothate them o Or they would go to Hell if they took their own life I People are worried about their loved ones if they took their own life and how they would react to it I Another reason people are too scared to end their own lives are scared of the actual act of doing it and that keeps them alive o Such as being scared of I Pain I Blood I Tissue damage I The time before they die and what that feels like I Etc Suicide Prevention I Majority of suicide victim confide in someone prior to attempt I Suicidal thoughts are very common in depression I With careful assessment level of risk can be ascertained I Distinguish between 1 Ideation passive vs active in other words thinking about it Passive wishing you were dead wanting to be dead Active actually thinking about killing myself lam going to end my own life not the universe like passive 2 Intent 3 Plan 4 Means I If imminently suicidal can t be left alone I quotcontract for safety I Involuntary commitment Steps YOU can take 1 ASK in normalizing non stigmatizing caring fashion 2 Arrange to stay with them or find someone else to do so until they 3
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'