Notes Week of 9/21-9/25
Notes Week of 9/21-9/25 ANTH 161 001
Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Anthropology 161 Week of 921924 09262015 Tuesday 922 Sunlight helps body produce Vitamin D critical for Natural Selection favored where there was in equatorial environments 0 Skin color follows a graduation around the world Human Adaptation Climatic Adaptation Climate amp temperature play roles in determining anatomical differences among geographically different populations 0 We see the range of individuals tall at the equator but short in arctic 0 Optimal strategies for balancing heat production amp dissipation Temperature 0 As humans migrated around the world they adapted to changes in environment 0 Humans are 0 Although humans originated in the warm to hot climate of Africa originated in East Africa heat is stressful harmful amp can induce death 0 To cope a Blood vessels expand allowing more blood ow to skin heat moves from interior to surface of body excess heat lost through skin ushing n Dissipates heat 16 million glands n Compared to other primates cooling n Favored by Natural Selection 0 Short term adjustments a Blood vessels narrow blood is kept away from skin surface to help heat a Releases energy in form of heat 0 Long term Adapation 0 Avoid frostbite o Flushing temperature warm feeling 0 Most adjustments to cold are 0 Ratio of body massvolume to surface area Populations heat lost at surface heat retained Populations heat lost at surface heat retained o Populations to help heat 0 Populations to help heat This Nilotic man a Nuer herder from Sudan has a tall linear body with elongated extremities note his fingers Cold weather populations tend to have relatively Among the cold adapted lnuit such as this Alaskan woman short limbs amp stocky bodies help conserve heat o Efficiency in heat dissipation sweat cools the body 0 Nilotics live in open environments where sweating is efficient o Pygmies live in No cooling 0 Adaptation Est 25 million people live at high altitude Tibet15000 feet Andes17000 feet 0 What is stress at high altitudes n Reduction in oxygen either the atmosphere or the body n Increased infant mortality a Increased miscarriages n Increased low birth weight babies I Slowed growth amp development delayed maturation El larger lung volume amp larger heart pumps more blood red blood cells can carry more oxygen molecules In Changes in respiration n Increased heart rate a Increased production of RBC 0 Increased lung capacity amp heart size 0 Not genetic change but example of psychological plasticity Adjustment required during growth amp development Thursday 924 Human Adaptation o populations for the past 25000 years have expenenced 0 Larger chest circumference 0 Larger lung capacity 0 Reduced stature compared to lowland individuals 0 Genetic component for high oxygen saturation in hemoglobin Correlation between body width and latitude is less strong in the New World This is more likely the result of gene ow amp genetic drift 0 There have also been general changes in robusticity through time Primates Behavior Idea of change Theory of change evolution by Natural Selection Mechanism for heredity Mendelian Genetics Clues to our 39 Clues to our Models for explaining the of our ancestors Homology amp Analogy 0 Our digestive tract is more like chimp than horse 0 Neurological structure more like our close relatives than distant ones F We can reason by Linnean System Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family them Pongidade us Hominide Genius them Pan us Homo Species them Troglodytes us Sapian Specialized for an Because of this we primates even though we do not occupy an arboreal niche Characterized by nonhuman Primates primates are divided into 2 main groups Order of Primates Prisimians lemurs Lorises Galogos Sifakas lndris Lesser primates Naked wet noses Lower incisors form 2nd digit of hind foot is modi ed to form quot used in grooming scent glands scent marking Lemuroidia o Terrestrial o Madagascar 0 000 O o tend to have twins 0 Lemuroidia Lorisoidea o The AyeAye Lemuroidia Daubentinia o Nocturnal 0 Worlds largest nocturnal primate o Characterized by its unique Taps on trees to nd grubs than gnaws holes in wood amp inserts its elongated mid nger to pull grubs out o Haplorhini Anthropoids More o o Postures that free hands Better o for social communication Tarsier genius Tarsus 0 Name comes from 0 South East Asia New WorldOld World Monkeys Apes amp Humans amp higher primates attened faces more species Platyrrhini 0 New World only Cebidae o 47 species Adaptive Radiation distributed throughout o Diurnal o Arboreal 0 Some have Callitrichidae o brothers help with offspring o Marmosets amp Tamurans Catarhines o Paired Usually in each jaw anterior 0 Only found in 0 Species IMPORTANT Cercopithecines F 0 Distribution ISubsaharah o Diurnal o Genital swelling
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