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Week 2 of Notes for Exam 2

by: Katie Kessler

Week 2 of Notes for Exam 2 81382 - MICR 3050 - 001

Katie Kessler
GPA 3.7
General Microbiology
Krista Barrier Rudolph

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About this Document

This is the 2nd week of class notes for Exam 2!
General Microbiology
Krista Barrier Rudolph
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Kessler on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81382 - MICR 3050 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Krista Barrier Rudolph in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
Week 2 Micro Notes Energy is important for cellular work repairmaintenancegrowthdivision Electrons play an important role in energy production and reduce C02 to form organic molecules like methane The important nutrients include carbon hydrogen and oxygen which aid in synthesizing organic building blocks needed for cell maintenance and growth The sources include inorganic and organic chemical compounds that are obtained by oxidizing a compound and sunlight gives energy Energy source phototrophs light and chemotrophs obtain energy from oxidation of chemical compounds Electron source lithotrophs inorganic substances and organotroph organic substances Carbon source Heterotrophs organic molecules are used as carbon sources that serve for energy and electron sources and autotrophs use carbon dioxide as their sole principle carbon source and are known as quotprimary producers Metabolism total of all chemical reactions occurring in the cell Catabolism fuels reactions energy conserving reactions and provide ready source or reducing power from electrons generates precursors for biosynthesis Anabolismthe synthesis of complex organic molecules from simpler ones requires energy and building blocks from fueling reactions Free energy the amount of energy that is available to do useful work Delta G the change in energy that can occur in chemical reactions Chemical work transport and mechanical work is carried out by microorganisms AG 39standard free energy change at pH 7 temperature of 25 degrees Celcius 1 atmosphere reactants and products at 1 M concentration Exergonic releases energy the reaction proceeds spontaneously and the delta G prime is negative Endergonic requires energy the reaction will not proceed spontaneously and delta G prime is positive Energy is often released in the form of protium or H moving down an electrochemical gradient ATP synthase consists of 2 regions the F0 portion is within the membrane and the F1 portion of the ATP synthase is above the membrane inside the matrix of the mitochondria E coli ATP synthase is the simplest known form of ATP synthase with 8 different subunit types Cells use energy rich compounds that give them a greater value of 30 kJmol for example phosphophenolpyruvate acetyl phosphate acetyl CoA and 13 Biphosphoglycerate Lower energy rich compounds will include glucose6 phospate and AMP Redox reactions are reactions in which one species is reduced and another is oxidized Therefore the oxidation state of the species involved must change These reactions are important for a number of applications including energy storage devices batteries photographic processing and energy production and utilization in living systems including humans Reduction A process in which an atom gains an electron and therefore decreases or reduces its oxidation number Basically the positive character of the species is reduced Oxidation A process in which an atom loses an electron and therefore increases its oxidation number In other words the positive character of the species is increased quotOIL RIG Oxidation is LOST Reduction is GAIN Standard Electron Potential E o equilibrium constant for an oxidative reduction reaction It is the measure of the tendency of the reducing agent to LOSE electrons The more negativebetter e donor and the more positivebetter e acceptor ETC Location mitochondria cristae ETC Organization e carriers are organized into the ETC with the first e carrier having the MOST negative E o ETC Functions transferring energy by making proton gradients Coenzymes freely diffusible can transfer e from one place to another in the cell ex NAD freely moves around the cell Prosthetic groups firmly attached to an enzyme in the PM ex cytochrome cannot leave the chain NADH and NADHP good e donors bc electron reduction potential 032 NAD and NADH coenzymes bc they carry 2e plus 1 Haso involved in catabolism NADHP and NADP anabolism works the same way as NAD and NADH though nun In 39 H i39 I H 39 H Iquot In mm H Aerobic Respiration Anaembic Respiration Fermentation Oxygenneguired Yes No No Type of phosphorylanon Substrate39lenel and oxidatine Substratelevel and omdatine Substratelevel Final electronhydnogen Oxygen N0 802 orO2 Organic molecules acceptm Potential molecules of 3638 236 2 ATPproduced Copmighm 2008 Peamn Education Inc punishing as Bean Cummings Substrate level phosphorylation used in fermentation and other pathways ATP is synthesized through catabolism Oxidative phosphorylation used in respirationATP is produced by a proton motive force As E pass through the ETC a PMF is generated and used to synthesize ATP Aerobic respiration involves three major processes glycolysis the Kreb39s tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation coupling the electron transport chain in the mitochondria with chemiosmosis Aerobic catabolism of glucose requires oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and metabolic water Anaerobic glucose catabolism in animal cells involves only glycolysis and the reduction of pyruvate to lactate More efficient is making ATP net yield 38 the ETC produces 34 of the 38 ATP molecules obtained from every molecule of glucose During glycolysis synthesis of acetylCoA and Kreb s cycle the electron carriers NAD and FADH are reduced to form NADH and FADHZ respectively These molecules are like little rechargeable batteries and when NAD and FADH are reduced this means that they accept and carry electrons and hydrogen ions H potential energy that can be used later in cellular respiration In the electron transport chain these electron carriers are oxidized transferring their electrons to the carrier molecules embedded in the ETC membrane In aerobic respiration these electrons are passed from one carrier molecule to another in a series of oxidationreduction reactions and ultimately to the final electron acceptor oxygen 02 that combines with hydrogen resulting a water H20 a metabolic waste product Then a PMF is created when the energy from each electron being passed down the chain is used to pump a proton H through each carrier molecule from one side of the membrane to the other The theory suggests essentially that most ATP synthesis in respiring cells comes from the electrochemical gradient across the inner membranes of mitochondria by using the energy of NADH and FADHz formed from the breaking down of energyrich molecules such as glucose Chemiosmosis in a mitochondrion ATP Synthase It is an important enzyme that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate ATP The mitochondria use the protonmotive force to synthesize a molecule called adenosine triphosphate or ATP that your cells can use to power other processes A protein called ATP synthase is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria As hydrogen ions build up outside the inner membrane they start to flow through a conduit provided by ATP synthase How it is established in more detail H is transferred to the outside of the cell while hydroxide is on the inside of the cell The energy is used to make ATP and H go into the cell and energy adds P to ADP making ATP and a less energized membrane


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