VPHY 3100: Week of 9/21
VPHY 3100: Week of 9/21 VPHY 3100
Popular in Elements of Physiology
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorin Crear on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to VPHY 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Li, Dr. Wells, Dr. Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Georgia.
Reviews for VPHY 3100: Week of 9/21
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/25/15
Chapter 9 The Autonomic Nervous System 0 Neurotransmitters of the ANS o Preganglionic fibers of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are cholinergic release acetylcholine o Sympathetic I Most postganglionic fibers are adrenergic release norepinephrine 0 Some affecting blood vessels of skeletal muscles and sweat glands are cholinergic o Parasympathetic I Most postganglionic fibers are cholinergic 0 Connections between pre and postganglionic fibers are always excitatory due to presence of nicotinic receptors 0 Innervation o Tissues are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers I Divisions create antagonistic opposing signals that tissue must integrate o Sympathetic Adrenergic Innervation I Excitatory EPSP constrictionvesicle release I Inhibitory IPSP relaxationdilation I 4 types of receptors on target tissues all GPCRs O 11 o excitatory o vasoconstriction at viscera 0 increased Ca2 concentration 2 o 1ncreased Ca concentratlon o excitatory increased cardiac output increased cAMP concentration 00 o inhibitory o vasodilation at viscera o relaxation of bronchioles 0 increased cAMP concentration I Badrenergic receptor signaling 1 Norepinephrine binds to GPCR 2 Gprotein or subunit disassociates and activates adenylate cyclase 3 Adenylate cyclase increased cAMP concentration 4 cAMP increases increased activity of protein kinase 5 protein kinase opens ion channels 6 downstream effects 0 Parasympathetic Cholinergic Innervation I All GPCRs on target tissues 0 M3M5 receptors activation 1 Opening of Ca2 channels o Autonomic Innervation of Organs 2 Increased concentration of Ca2 3 DepolarizationContraction of smooth muscles or increased gland secretions 0 M2 receptor activation 0 Indirect opening of K channels 0 Hyperpolarizationrelaxation of heart muscle cells 0 Slow heart rate via vagus I Most visceral organs are duallyinnervated 0 Antagonistic opposite effects most common 0 Complementary similar effects 0 Cooperative synergistic enhanced effects I Some organs only innervated by sympathetic division 0 Adrenal medulla Arrector pili muscles skin 0 0 Sweat glands skin 0 Most blood vessels Chapter 11 Endocrinology 0 Endocrinology 0 Study of endocrine glandstissue the hormones they release and their effects on target tissues 0 Hormones o Carried via blood 0 Regulate body metabolism growth and reproduction o Prohormones and prehormones aka preprohormones are inactive precursors o Downstream effects of hormones may be complementary or antagonistic 0 Tissue response dependent on plasma concentration of hormones I Normal physiological ranges 9 sensitization of receptorsupregulation of genes I abnormal pharmacological ranges 9 desensitization of receptorsdownregulation of genes 0 Classification of Hormones Amino Acid Peptides and Proteins Steroids Derivatives Hydrophilic Epinephrine amp Hypothalamic amp norepinephrine pituitary hormones Insulin amp glucagon Parathyroid hormone Hydrophobic Thyroid hormones Corticosteroids Sex steroids epinephrine typically acts a hormone norepinephrine acts as a neurotransmitter 0 Cellular Receptors I Enzymelinked receptors Act through second messengers cAMP Ca2 kinases Activated by insulin growth factors I Gproteincoupledreceptors Act through second messengers cAMP Ca2 kinases Activated by epinephrine norepinephrine I Intracellular receptors 0 Pancreas Act as a transcription factor in the nucleus Activated by steroids thyroid hormones o Islet of Langerhans comprises endocrine portion of pancreas I Alpha cells secrete glucagon Released to increase blood glucose concentration Promotes catabolism break down of macromolecules for energy I Beta cells secrete insulin Released to decrease blood glucose concentration Promotes anabolism storage of precursors to macromolecules I Target tissues 0 Insulin amp glucagon o Insulin Liver Skeletal muscles Adipocytes fat cells I Decreases gluconeogenesis creation of glucose and increases glycogen synthesis in liver I Insulin Receptor Activation 1 o Glucagon Insulin binds to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase RTK 2 Activated receptor phosphorylates itself 3 Receptor phosphorylates signal molecules 4 5 Cascade of effects Glucose uptake and anabolic reactions glucose 9 glycogen in liver amp muscleglucose9triglycerides in adipocytes o Hepatocytes liver cells express GLUT2 transporters I Move glucose into liver When blood concentration is high 0 gt95 taken up by muscles and fat tissues 90 10 musclefat I Move glucose out of liver When blood concentration is low I Increases glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen and gluconeogenesis 0 Diabetes I High concentrations of circulating blood glucose I Type I Diabetes 0 Beta cells attacked by immune cells and produce notoo little insulin I Type II Diabetes 0 Target tissues develop resistance to insulin 0 HypothalamusPituitary Axis 0 master control of endocrine systems 0 Pituitary gland aka hypophysis I Controlled by hypothalamus I Anterior lobe aka adenohypophysis 0 Regulated hormonally o Hormones released into capillary system nearby 0 Releases all hormones other than ADH and oxytocin including o ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone I Targets adrenal cortex I Promotes secretion of glucocorticoids I tropic promotes appropriate growth of target tissues as well as hormone secretion 0 TSH thyroidstimulating hormone I Targets thyroid gland I Promotes production and secretion of T3 and T4 hormones o GHRH growth hormonereleasing hormone I Promotes tissue growth 0 Generally controlled by negative feedback inhibition I Posterior lobe aka neurohypophysis 0 Regulated by neurotransmitter release 0 Delivered via infundibulum contains hypothalamo hypophyseal tract 0 Releases ADH and oxytocin o ADH I Water reabsorption by kidneys o Oxytocin I Uterine contractions during labor I Contraction of mammary glands during lactation o Adrenal glands o Innervated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers that release acetylcholine o Adrenal medulla I Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 0 Produce ght or ight responses and increase glycogenolysis and lipolysis o Adrenal cortex I Secretes corticosteroids steroid hormones 0 Synthesized from cholesterol 0 Travel through bloodstream via carrier proteins o Bind to intracellular hormone receptors 0 Receptors form a dimer and travel to DNA inside nucleus to affect transcription Most hormones produce catabolic effects Arranged into three zoneslayers o Zona glomerulosa o Secretes mineralocorticoids I Mineralocorticoids regulate Na and K concentrations 0 Zona fasciculata o Secretes glucocorticoids amp sex steroids I Glucocorticoids in uence blood glucose levels 0 Zona reticularis o Secretes glucocorticoids amp sex steroids 0 dadrenergic receptor signaling 1 msgweww epinephrine binds to GPCR Gprotein or subunit disassociates and activates phospholipase C Phospholipase C cuts some phospholipids into 1P3 and DAG molecules 1P3 binds to ligandgated ion channel on endoplasmic reticulum Ion channel opens to allow ow of Ca2 Ca2 ions binds to calmodulin protein Calmodulin protein activates kinases Downstream effects cAMP and Ca2 effects converge on metabolic equipment steps leading to breakdown of glycogen