Chapters 1 and 2
Chapters 1 and 2 BIOL O1113
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Respond to stimuli Reproduce and grow Acquire materials and energy Organization Rely on homeostatic mechanisms temperature regulation Have an evolutionary history Atoms Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organi systems Organisms Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere The sum of a chemical reactions or an organism is called metabolism 0 Anabolism builds up Reproduction o Passing on one s genes Consist of DNA Growth 0 Increase in sizecells 0 Developmental stages o archea o bacteria 0 eu ka ryote archea bacteria eubacteria plantae fungi Animalia o o o o o o Protista 1 Observation 2 Hypothesis Development 3 Make a prediction perform experiment 4 Draw conclusions Scienti c theories are accepted explanations of how the world works 0 Cell theory 0 Theory of evolution Case controlled test experimental agent against a control 0 Placebos often used Published in scienti c peer reviewed by journals Understanding scienti c studies 0 Graphs often used to show relationship 0 Statistical tests used to determine likelihood that result occurred by chance Ethics 0 Bioethics Branch concerned with development and consequences of biotechnology Human in uences on ecosystems Climate change Atoms are the fundamental unit of all matter Atoms contain Electrons found in shells around the nucleus 0 Protons o Neutrons Elements are pure substances that contains only one type of atom o 92 naturally occurring elements are known only about 20 found in organisms o 4 elements in this group compose greater than 90 of the atoms of all living things carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen isotopes are alternative forms of atoms 0 They differ only in the number of neutrons Additional neutrons make some atoms unstable 0 To achieve a more stable state many isotopes radio isotopes release tiny energetic particles form their nuclei These emissions are known as radiation Medical uses 0 O O O O X rays CT scans Radioactive tracers used PET scans Radioactive glucose used which emits positrons Radiation Therapy Other uses Sterilization Food Atoms combine to form molecules 0 Compound a substance made up of 2 or more atoms the smallest particle of a compound that still retains the properties of that compound chemical bonds Atoms bond to form more stable con gurations 0 There are 2 types of bonds that form between atoms Ionic Covalent Hydrogen o Electrons are responsible for creating the bonds that hold atoms together 0 Are bonds with electrostatic attractions between 2 oppositely charged particles lonic bonds form between 2 atoms when 0 One loses an electron o The other gains an electron This creates 2 charged particles known as ions 0 Formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms Occur any time there is an unequal sharing of electrons by two atoms 0 Bear slight charge either positive or negative 0 Octet rule ll outer shell valence Occur with equal sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds form between slightly charged atoms 0 Usually on different molecules Water is a polar molecule Bonds form between 0 the positively charged hydrogen atoms and one of water major component of all cells and organisms high heat capacity 0 holds onto heat 0 a calorie is amount of energy needed to raise a gram of water 1 degree Celsius high heat of evaporation solvent 0 molecules that attract water are hydrophilic 0 molecules that don t attract water are hydrophobic cohesion and adhesion 0 molecules to cling to one another 0 ability to cling to polar surfaces frozen water is less dense than liquid water temperature stabilization acids are substances that add hydrogen ions to solution bases remove them 0 measured on pH scale less than 7 acidic greater than 7 base 0 lower pH the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions the lower the concentration of hydrogen OH ions Most biochemical reactions occur at pH values between 6 and 8 o Maintaining pH is called a buffer Homeostasis ensured in part by 0 Remove hydrogen ions from solution when levels increase 0 Add hydrogen ions when levels decrease Organic and Inorganic compounds contain molecules that are primarily made of carbon atoms s are not made primarily of carbon atoms Macro molecule consists of multiple subunits o Dehydration o Hydrolysis reaction 0 Contain HCOH with a 21 ration of HO Monosaccharides Glucose fructose galactose Disaccharides Maltose lactose sucrose Polysaccharides Starch glycogen cellulose Roles Structure and energy storage of energy 0 Don t dissolve in water 0 Fats triglyerides waxes oils steroids Fatty acids are CH chains that end with acid COOH Saturated solid at room temperature Unsaturated liquid at room temperature Phospholipids o Roles Structure Storage of energy 0 Consists of strings of amino acids Polypeptides 0 Four Levels of Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary 0 Loss of tertiary structure is called denaturation usually result of heat Quarternary hemoglobin ex 0 Proteins with multiple subunits o 2 structures beta pleated sheet alpha pleated sheet 0 Consist of a sugar phosphate group and nitrogenous base DNA deoxyribonucleicacid o Adenine thymine cytosine gnanine RNA ribonucleic acid Uracic in lieu of Thymine 0 ATP adenosine triphosphate Energy carrier
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