Age of Revolutions
Age of Revolutions HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Age of Revolutions postAmerican Revolution 0 After the American Revolution the US remained engaged wthe world 0 Didn t retreat into total isolation o Stayed aware of global events 0 American Revolution 1st time colonial people had defeated and overthrown the colonizer French Revolution 0 France was in a financial crisis due to the large debt it accumulated from the Seven Years War and the American Revolution 0 King Louis 16th was blamed for mishandling the financial crisis 0 People began to reject monarchy s quotabsolute power doctrine 0 People began to criticize the elite and the Catholic Church 0 People turned toward the Enlightenment s ideals of freedom rights etc o The nobility and monarchy were targeted for their lavish lifestyle while commoners suffered 0 Main target was Marie Antoinette gt seen as too ostentatious too proAustrian 0 Main issue opulence of the rich and how they ignored the plight of the poor 0 King Louis 16th fired many of his ministers because of the crisis 0 King called the EstatesGeneral in 1789 o EG was last called in 1640s 0 EG made up of 3 estates I First Estate Church I Second Estate nobility I Third Estate commoners o The Third Estate saw the First and Second Estates as working together to suppress the average citizen I Third Estate upset and formed the National Assembly at the exclusion of the First and Second Estates 0 Storming of the Bastille in July of 1789 first battle of the French Revolution 0 August 1789 series of major events occurred 0 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen gt new constitution o Slavery was abolished move toward more social equality o Tithing was abolished move away from the Church and is influence 0 1791 royal family attempted to flee France but was captured and returned to Paris 0 Event turned public opinion against the monarchy people saw them as traitors o 1792 September Massacres gt killing of anyone deemed as antiRevolution o ProRevolutionaries killed antiRevolutionaries because of fear of an uprising by political prisoners if foreign powers invaded France to aid the antiRevolution cause 0 Girondists take control of the Revolutionary government 0 Have King Louis 16th executed in 1793 0 Reign of Terror mass killing of any deemed suspicious or antiRevolution o Jacobins take power and are led by Robespierre 0 Marie Antoinette is executed o Edmund Charles Genet 0 French diplomat who went to America to try to get America on the side of the Revolutionaries I Goal was to have America uphold its end of the alliance created between France and America during the American Revolution Washington was worried about entangling alliance and rejected calls to help France I 1793 Washington s quotProclamation of Neutrality 0 America can trade wGreat Britain and France but it will stay out of wars or conflicts that could harm its relationship with these countries 0 Genet travelled throughout the colonies against the orders of Washington and Jefferson to garner support for the Revolutionaries I Wanted Americans to go against Washington s neutrality stance and fight for France Washington and Jefferson mad at Genet 0 1794 France government tries to recall Genet and threatens him with the prospect of arrest and execution 0 Washington reluctantly allows Genet to stay in America to avoid execution O O 0 Back in France the late 1790s saw a change in government 0 Rise of Napoleon gt declared France an empire and himself as emperor o nvaded SpainPortugal and put his brother in charge of the Iberian Peninsula America during the French Revolution 0 1789 George Washington elected President John Adams as VicePresident 0 Main political issue foreign policy gt differing view of foreign policy led to political parties 0 DemocraticRepublicans I Leaders Thomas Jefferson James Madison I Limited federal government I AntiNational Bank I ProFrench Revolution I More Francophile than Anglophile I Yeomen farmer seen as ideal virtuous citizen I Politics should include common people as long as they re white and male 0 Politics isn t only for the rich or elite I Power base was Southern planters and Western farmers o Federalists I Leader Alexander Hamilton I Strong federal government I Increase taxes I ProNational Bank I Direct political power should lie with the elites 0 Fear of mob rule if politics opened up to all people I Restore ties wGreat Britain I Critical of the French Revolution I Party base was urban workers property holders the educated and elites 0 Regarding the French Revolution Americans were generally supportive of the early Revolution because of its Enlightenment ideals because as it became more bloody Americas began to change their opinion Ca bbean 0 1800s saw a wave of revolutions in the Caribbean and Latin America 0 Haiti Santo Domingo 0 French colony 0 Sugar cane production gt labor intensive so large slave population 0 Slaves outnumber white plantation owners 0 1791 slave revolt against white masters 0 Full scale revolution ensued and was led by Toussaint L Overture o 1794 France abolished slavery in Haiti trying to appease the slaves and restore peace 0 1802 Napoleon sent troops to recapture the island I L overture was captured and died in 1803 o 1803 French forces were defeated gt Napoleon gave up at restoring French power 0 Throughout the revolution many slave refugees went America I Many settled in New Orleans and Southern states 0 Slaves in America saw the Haitian Revolution as an inspiration 0 White America s view of the revolution was critical because of the violence and the potential for a slave revolt I Fear by white slave owners for a slave uprising like the one in 1791 I This fear materialized wGabriel s Rebellion 0 Gabriel was a slave who encouraged other slaves to rise up against their white masters o Revolt was a failure 0 Lead VA and other South states to pass harsher slave codes Latin America 0 Even with Napoleon s brother on the throne in Spain Spanish colonies claimed allegiance to the Spanish monarchy and took on more selfrule o 1814 Spanish monarchy returns and tries to reestablish absolute power over the colonies o Colonies resist and stage a series of revolts 0 Brazil Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded 0 Once Napoleon s brother was removed the royal family moved back to Portugal I King s son Don Pedro 1 stayed behind in Brazil 0 Royals back at Portugal tried to reestablish absolute oversight over Brazil I Brazilians angry and Don Pedro agreed with them 0 Brazil given its freedom with Don Pedro in charge 0 Simon Bolivar 0 Leader of many independence movements in Latin America 0 After winning independence for colonies he was often name president of the new state 0 President of many states so he consolidated them into one state called quotGran Colombia I By 1830s Gran Colombia was falling apart 0 Divided into many states that make up present day South America 0 1825 New Peru became quotBoliviaquot named after Simon Bolivar 0 Important notes about revolutions in South America 0 Temporary absence of royals in their home country due to Napoleon planted the seeds for revolutions later as the colonies experienced selfrule and disliked the monarchs attempts to regain control 0 Early 1800s Latin America bunch of colonies mid 1850s many independent states 0 1820s James Monroe US President recognized the independence of all new Latin American states except Haiti Key Words 0 Louis XVI 0 Marie Antoinette o EstatesGeneral o Bastille 0 George Washington 0 John Adams 0 Alexander Hamilton 0 Federalists 0 Thomas Jefferson 0 Democratic Republicans o Yeoman 0 September Massacres o Girondins o Jacobins o Maximilien Robespierre o Edmund Charles Genet 0 Proclamation of Neutrality 0 Napoleon Bonaparte o Toussaint L Overture o Gabriel s Rebellion o Dom Pedro 0 Simon Bolivar 0 Gran Colombia