Chapter One Introduction Material
Chapter One Introduction Material CHEM 1311
Popular in General Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ming-Han Lu on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1311 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by John Sibert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Chapter 1 Intro Material Most Important Tonics 1 Dimensional Analysis Conversion Factors 2 Significant Figures Atomic Structure A Brief Historv Over 2500 years ago Democritus ancient Greek philosopher peculated that all matter had a functional building block Atomos meaning uncuttable Times Passes Alchemy major contributions toward developing experimental techniques acked the knowledge and means to acquire the knowledge to understand fully what was being observed magicmythology were tenets to an alchemist sough to make noble metals gold and silver from other more prevalent base metals sought the elixir of life Mid 18th Century LaVoisier credited as the Father of Modern Chemistry Reproducible measurements 1808 Dalton s Atomic Theory All matter consists of small discrete particles called atoms no info on structure Repeated what Democritus said in five pages Dalton s Atomic Theory of Matter 1808 Crystallized the idea that all matter consists of atoms Tenets 1 All matter is composed ultimately of small indivisible particles called atoms 2 Atoms of a given element have identical properties ie mass Atoms of different elements have different properties 3 Atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios to give compounds 4 Chemical reactions involve the combination separation or rearrangement of atoms they are not created nor destroyed Accounted for two laws accepted at the time Qw of Conservation of Mass There is no detectable change in mass during a chemical reaction Qw of Definite Pronortiong The elemental composition of a compound is always the same Ex Water is 89 O and 11 H by mass Later Qw of Multiple Pronortions produced by Dalton s Theory When two elements form more than one compound the relative masses are in ratios of small whole s EX C0 C02 100g C 133g O 100g C 266g 0 1850 s Faraday Electrolytic Experiments Matter can be decomposed using electricity There is an electrical component to matter 1897 Thomson Cathode Ray Tube Experiments Nobel Prize 1906 Generated beam of negativelycharged particles electrons from metal surface cathode Measured chargemass ratio of electron 176 10quot8 coulombsgram 1890 s Becquerel Discovered radiation passed the topic on to graduate student named Curie A1 harajre Lead container with hele i Gatmna raye VB eta raye f I I I Radieaetitre aeuree Source httpsreichchemistrvwikisoacescom3C3C187519003E3E 1909 Milikan Oil Drop Experiment Nobel Peace Prize Determined charge of electron 16022 10quot19 coulombs Aso calculated mass of electrons 910 10quot28g from Thomson s ratio 80 how are electrons arranged in an atom Early 1900 s Thomson s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom Atom is a sphere of diffuse positive change with imbedded electrons randomly distributed IT IS WRONG SOU rce httpsdr2822n363xxgcloudfrontnetdatastreamsfd 3A596bb1921865a61d06955e5b21 1 a1 6796051 282653df28501 88dd98823 MAG ETHUMBPOSTCARD23MAG ETHUMBPOSTCARD1 The Plum P lll j 39 Morale of Ema nfF Ei tilTiFE A Eharge 1 f L39 Negatively harged Particles Electra First attempt to create a model of the atom 1911 Rutherford the Nuclear Atom Bombarded gold foil with alpha particles positivelycharged particle Determined that most of the atom s mass was concentrated in a small positivelycharged center The rest of the atom was largely empty space