Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes
Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes CHE 120-004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rochelle Foxx on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 120-004 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Richard Bloss in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I - NS in Chemistry at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Chapter 3 Notes Chemical Reactions Law of Conservation of Matter States that matter can neither be created nor Destroyed Reactants the starting substances in a chemical reaction Products the substances produced in a chemical reaction Stoichiometry Quantitative relations between the amount of reactants and products Stoichiometry coefficients multiplying number assigned to the species in a chemical equation in order to balance the equation Combustion the reaction of a compound with molecular oxygen to form products in which elements are combined with oxygen The products are always Carbon Dioxide and Water 0 Step 1 Write correct formula for reactants and Products 0 Step 2 Balances the equations with subscripts and coefficients Each side should have the same number of atoms 0 Verify that the number of atoms of each element is balanced Productfavored reactions Reactants are completely or largely converted to products at equilibrium Reactantfavored Reaction in which only a small amount of reactants are converted to products at equilibrium Solution a homogeneous mixture Solute substance dissolved in a solvent to form solution Solvent A medium in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution Aqueous Solution A solution in which water is the solute Electrodes Conductors of electricity such as Copper Wire Electrolytes Solutions that can conduct electricity because they have ions dissolved Strong Electrolytes Contains salts ionic compound strong acids or strong bases Weak Electrolytes Contains weak acids and weak bases Nonelectrolytes substances that are soluble but does not dissociate at all 0 Solute in aqueous solution Ionic Compound Strong Electrolyte ions 0 Solute in aqueous solutions Molecular Compound Acids and Weak Bases Strong acids Strong Electrolyte ions 0 Solute in aqueous solution Molecular Compound Acids and Weak Bases Weak acids and bases Weak Electrolyte Molecules and Ions 0 Solute in aqueous solution Molecular Compound Most Molecular Compounds Nonelectrolyte Molecules Formation The creation of compounds from it39s component elements Element 1 Element 2 Element N Compound Oxidation Increase in an element39s oxidation because it loses electrons Ex Nitrogen goes from a charge of zero to a charge of negative 3 Reduction Increase in oxidation of an element because that element is gaining electrons Ex Hydrogen goes from zero to plus one charge Decompositions begin With a compound as a reactant and generate elements a products Compound is the reactant and elements are products Oxidizing agent the substance that causes another substance to be oxidized The oxidizing agent itself is reduced It always has to be a reactant the compound With the element undergoing oxidation Reducing agent Reactant substance compound undergoing reduction that causes another substance to be reduced The reducing agent itself is oxidized Hydrogen ion hydronium ion Hydronium ion is a water molecule attached to hydrogen ion 0 Arrhenius Acids donate H ions Bases donate OH ions 0 Bronsted Lowry Acids donate H ions Bases accept H ions 0 Lewis Acids accept a pair of electrons Bases donate a pair of electrons Strong acids 100 dissociated HCl HI HBR H2804 HNO3 and HCLO4 Weak acids less than 100 dissociated HF HC2H302 HSO4 and H2C204 Equilibrium of undissociated acids and dissociated products Strong Bases Hydroxides and oxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals LiOH and BaOH2 Weak bases Does not ionize fully in aqueous solutions Precipitate An insoluble solid emerges for aqueous solution Molecular equation 3FeSO4 aq 2Na3PO4aq Fe3PO42 s 3Na2804 aq Complete Ionic Equation 3Fe2 3SO4239 6Na 2PO4339 Fe3PO42 s 6Na 3SO4239 Net Ionic Equation 3Fe2 2PO4339 Fe3PO42 Na and 80439 are spectator ions did not undergo any changes so they are excluded from the net ionic equation
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