Chapter 3 and 4
Popular in General Biology: Human Focus
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.
Reviews for Chapter 3 and 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/15
Developed by Theordor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow o 1 All organisms are made up of 1 or more cells 0 2 Cells are the most basic unit of life 0 3 New cells arise form pre existing cells surface area to volume ratio 0 higher surface area better cell is able to take up nutrients 2 categories of microscopes 0 light microscopes ordinary light can magnify 400x specimen 0 electron microscopes use beam of electrons can magnify 100000x size cells lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles cells have nucleus and organelles 2 main compartments 0 Nuclear compartment Genetic info Regulates structures and function of cell 0 Cytoplasmic compartment Semi uid medium that contains water and various types of molecules The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane Outermost boundary of the cell 0 Selectively permeable Fluid Mosaic Model Consists of lipids proteins and carbohydrates 0 Lipids fats biochemical characterized by lack of water solubility ln plasma membrane phospholipids form a double layer in which many of the proteins oat freely Glycoproteins and glycoplipids are imbedded in or attached to the membrane Molecules move through plasma in 5 ways 0 Passive transport does not require energy Diffusion and osmosis Carrier proteins and facilitated Diffusion Active Transport the movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low Small molecules move this way uncharged mement of water across plasma membrane refers to amount of dissolved particles solutes in a solution 0 lsotonic same concentration of non diffusion solutes and water on both sides of membrane 0 Hypotonic solution has higher concentration of solute and lower concentration of water than the cell Cell shrinks o Hypertonic solution has lower concentration of solute and high concentration of water than cell Cell would burst Carrier molecules help water molecules diffuse through membranes 0 carrier proteins for water lon bond to carrier protein and it changes shape causing movement Movement of molecules across membranes from high to low concentration 0 Aid of protein molecules often called 39pumps in the plasma membrane Energy supplied by ATP cystic brosis transmitter Endocytosisphagocytosis Large molecules and cells ingested by endocytosis o something large entering cell Cell engulfs item Vesicle forms package and takes whatever engulfed to where it needs to be 0 endocytosis of liquids How fats are taken into small intestines Extracellular uids o regurgitate materials releasing large molecules Houses genetic info that controls structure and function Enclosed by double membrane called which contains channels called Contains involved in RNA synthesis Site of cellular energy production Contains own DNA Consists of 2 membranes and inner membrane space lnner membrane is folded fold is called 0 Where electron transport system occurs Have own genome used to be believed to be prokaryotes Space between cristae is Glucose breakdown part of cellular respiration takes place mostly in mitochondrion 0 Energy liberated from glucose molecules is captured by ATP 0 Only captures about 30 of energy contained in glucose Rest given off as heat Attached to endoplasmic reticulum ER or free with in cytoplasm Reticulum sort of protein factory o rough ER has ribosomes on its surface 0 smooth ER doesn t have ribosomes on its surface Job to produce phospholipids consists of 0 nuclear envelope 0 ER 0 Golgi apparatus Modi es and packages proteins for extracellular use 0 Lysosomes Contain hydrolytic enzymes and digest oldinjured cells break down dead cells 0 Vesicles Tiny membranous sacs not organelles Cytoplasmic compartment is home to cytoskeleton 0 Network of tubules and laments Microtubules Assembly under the control of centrosomes Important for maintaining cell shape mitosismeiosis Actin laments 0 Long thin laments involved in movement Intermediate laments 0 Structures that permit cellular mobility 0 Contain microtubules Movement across the surface of cells is provided by 0 Hair like projections on cell Meshwork of proteins and polysaccharides in close association with the cell 0 Collagen resists stretching o Elastin gives the ECM resilience o Fibrorectin is an adhesive protein 0 lntegrins connects bronectin to actin cytoskeleton mechanically attach 2 cells connections between the plasma membrane of adjacent cells with a zipper like barrier channel proteins of the plasma membrane fuse to allow for movement between adjacent cells Cellular respiration is an important component of metabolism 0 Requires multiple metabolic pathways Regulated by feedback inhibition 0 One of the end products of a pathway interacts with an enzyme early in the pathway Chemical breakdown of glucose occurs in o 4 steps 1 Glycolysis 2 Transition reaction 3 Citric Acid Cycle Krebs Cycle 4 Electron Transport System total output is 38 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule essential to most chemical reactions in cells 0 missing enzyme is a metabolic pathway that will shut pathway down 0 Enzymes are large proteins that act on substrates Contain uniquely shaped active site where chemical reactions occur 0 Very speci c 0 Enzymes are unchanged by reaction Enzymes lower activation energy 0 Coenzymes are nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes and may accept or contribute atoms to the reaction 0 Breakdown of glucose into pyruvate molecules Anaerobic process doesn t need oxygen to occur Produces o 2 net molecules of ATP 0 2 net NADH molecules containing high energy electrons o 2 pyruvate molecules modi ed pyruvate molecule enters cell as Acetyl coA acetyl coA bonds to oxaloacetate producing citric acid citric acid is modi ed many times in pathway Two ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule Electrons given off during citric acid cycle and glycolysis enter ETS ETS is a series of proteins embedded in the inner surface of the mitochondrion s inner membrane Electrons lose energy as they are passed from one protein to another 0 Energy used to make 32 ATPs per glucose molecule 0 Final electron acceptor is Oxygen aerobic process requires oxygen Without oxygen ETS and citric acid cycle shut down Cells rely then on glycolysis and fermentation to generate energy Pyruvate is converted into lactic acid 0 In some organisms ethyl alcohol is produced instead Lactic acid fermentation is an important source of food for humans Cells combine to form four primary tissues 0 Epithelial o Connective 0 Muscle o Nervous Exist in all organs Consist of extra cellular matrix and cellular component Binds the cells and organs of the body together 0 All connective tissues consist of 20 components Specialized cells Protein bers Collagen bers Reticular bers thing collagen bers 0 Elastic bers Ground substances 0 Loose brous connective tissues Supports epithelium and internal organs 0 Adipose tissues Stores far 0 Dense brous tissue Tendons connect bone to muscle Ligaments connect bone to bone 0 Cartilage Cells embedded in a matrix of extra cellular vers and other material 0 Elastic cartilage Hyaline cartilage Fibrocartilage helps with stand pressure 0 lntervertebral disks 0 Bone produce collage Cells encased in calci ed cartilage matrix and becomes osteocytes digest bone and release calcium 0 Contain channels called canaliculi 2 types of bone tissue 0 spongey irregular network of spicules calci ed collagen plates compact made of cylindrical structural units called osteons 0 Blood Red blood Cells eruthrocytes 0 Transport oxygen White Blood Cells leukocytes Platelets thrombocytes o Lymph Clean uid derived from uids surrounding tissues Consists of specialized cells that contract when stimulated o Consists of actin and myosin laments 0 Body has 3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal voluntary Cardiac involuntary Smooth Muscle involuntary Found in hollow organs bladder Contains specialized cells that conduct impulse o conducting cells Transmit impulses from one region of the body to another 3 parts dendrites cell body 0 axons o nonconductive cells Non conducting Nourish and protect neurons from disease Tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer 0 Bound to a base membrane 3 types 0 simplequot single layer found in glands kidneys ovaries attened cells that line the lungs and blood vessels columnar lines GI tract often has microvilli appears layered Lines the trachea glandular epithelia exocrine glands secrete uid endocrine glands secrete hormones multiple layers o Consists of strati ed squamous epithelium 0 New cells harden due to keratin composition Keratinocytes Langerhans cells Macrophases White Blood Cells Melanocytes Produce pigment 0 Layer between epidermis and dermis 0 Below dermis o Dense brous connective tissue Collagen and elastic bers Skin Cancer Basal cell carcinoma 0 Derived from basal aka stem cells 0 Squamous cell carcinoma 0 Melanoma Derived from melanocytes Genetic disease caused by defect in attatchment of the epidermis to the basement membrane Nails 0 Grow from epithelium at base of the nail called nail root Covered by cuticles o Lunula results from thick later of cells Hair follicles o Begins as bulb in the dermis and continue through the epidermis 0 Includes one or more oil glands Sweat Glands o tubule that begins in the dermis and open into a hair follicle or the surgace of the skin Mucous Membranes 0 Line digestive respiratory urinary and reproductive system Serous Membranes 0 Line the lungs heart abdominal cavity and its organs 0 Speci c names based on location Pleural lines the thoracic acid Pentoneum that supports the abdominal organ is lined with mesentery Syrorial Membranes o Composed of loose connective tissue 0 Line cavities of joints Secrete syriorial uid Meninges o Composed of connective tissue 0 Cover the brain and spinal chord o Bodys ability to maintain a constancy of internal environment by adjusting physiological processes Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients and carries away carbon dioxide and waste 0 Interstitial uid bathes the body s cells Homeostatic feedback mechanisms realign a sensor and control 0 Sensor detects a change and the control center brings about an affect o Keeps a variable to a certain set point 0 Causes increasing change in the same direction
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'