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by: Maggie Hubacher

9.21-9.25 MSCI 210 001

Maggie Hubacher
GPA 3.8
Oceans and Society
Lori Anne Ziolkowski

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About this Document

All notes from Monday 9/21, Wedensday 9/23, and Friday 9/25. Atmosphere and ocean circulation, thermohaline circulation, Ekman Spiral, Gyres, El Nino, current patterns.
Oceans and Society
Lori Anne Ziolkowski
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Hubacher on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 210 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lori Anne Ziolkowski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Oceans and Society in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
921 Atmosphere and Ocean Circulation Coriolis affect moves northern hemisphere to right southern to left At equator Hadley cell warm moist air rises lots of rain air transports to 30 North or South Intertropical Convergent Zone monsoons movement of lTZ Subtropical most deserts less moisture in aIr Ferrel cell air rises goes to 30M or polar cell Wind doesn t go straight north or south de ection bends air currents Know cell names not necessarily wind patterns F E Storms are variations in large scale atmospheric circulation o Cyclone vs hurricane vs storm 0 Regional atmospheric disturbances that are rotating masses of low pressure air either within or between large masses of air 0 originate in tropical regions cause a lot of damage 0 occur in mid latitudes between polar and ferrel cells primarily in winter and spring Monsoons are wind patterns that change with the seasons 0 Monsoons are characterized by cold dry offshore flow of continental air in winter and onshore flow of warm moist oceanic air Why is ocean circulation important Transports heat In uences weather and climate Transports nutrients gases and organisms Ocean circulation occurs via two types 0 Surface currentsHorizontalwind driven The upper 400 meters of ocean 10 Circulate for a couple years 0 Deep water massesverticaldensity ddven Thermohaline circulation Circulate for 10005 of years Forces that drive surface currents o Winds coriolis gravity solar heating 0 Deep water masses driven by density Winds pull water in direction of wind 0 But current path is not quite the same because of FRICTION and CORIOLIS Ekman spiral and transport 0 Surface currents move at an angle to the wind o This pushes some of the lower layers of water due to friction the magnitude of energy transmission decays with depth 0 Creates a spiral in water WhoOoOoO o Ekman transport when all depths are summed up water turns to the right or left from the original wind direction Generalized ocean current pattern 0 Gyres circular rotation in each hemisphere o Circulates around edges of ocean basins 0 Gulf stream north Atlantic current canary current north equatorial current 0 Generally four currents Gyres are in circles because of ekman transport and gravity 0 Geostrophic balance quotpile of waterquot made by four currents in middle of gyre 0 Western intensi cation of currents mound of water is shifted because of planet rotation 0 One side of gyre is steeper than other side 0 Narrow and fast currents on Western side Eastern side has wider and slow 0 Western currents are warm Eastern are cold 0 Western intensi cation of currents o Geostrophic ow creates high pressure 0 Winds and coriolis shifts to the west and piles up 0 Intensi es speed depth of currents on western side 0 Why the gulf stream is so deep and fast 300x greater water ow than amazon Circulating gyre has two forces acting upon it o Coriolis and gravity 823 Generalized surface current pattern is circulation around the edges of ocean basins gyres 0 Five major gyres know where they are located 0 The largest ocean current is the ANTARCTIC CIRCUMPOLAR CURRENt Each gyre is made up of four currents mainly know these two 0 Western boundary current Travels polarward narrow deep warm fast Piled up water in center of gyre is shifted to the west due to rotation of the earth coriolis Examples gulf stream kuroshio Eastern boundary current Travels towards the equator wide shallow cool slow Ekman transport causes surface transport at 45 degrees but water generally moves in same direction as winds because of geostrophic balance As water is transported to center of ocean it piles up Gravity pulls the pile back down This gravity force is strong enough to make the water be transported in same direction as wind Current transport is measured in Sverdrups 1 million cubic centimeters per second 1 sverdrup 264000000 US gallons per second Upwelling when water comes from deep ocean to surface 0 Coastal upwelling occurs when winds blow parallel to the coast 0 Winds generate Ekman transport offshore o Yields cooler more productive waters 0 Equatorial upwelling as winds blow along the equator there is Ekman transport to both north and south more upwelling El Nino atmospheric phenomenon that effects the ocean o In normal circulation wind blows across the Paci c taking cool waters from eastern Paci c to warm water near lndonega This is called Walker circulation One giant atmospheric circulation ce 0 During El Nino atmospheric circulation is broken into two cells that are split in the central paci c Ocean circulation reverses Downwelling now occurs in eastern Paci c El Nino is bad for South American shermen as it stops upwelling 0 El nino and its counterpart Ia Nina reoccur every 37 years Thermohaline Circulation 0 Thermo heat haline salt 0 Density driven circulation 0 Vertical circulation in ocean Deep water is formed at the surface by freezing of seaice and dry arctic air 0 Occurs in the North Atlantic 0 Cooling at surface and extra salt causes water to sink 0 Once water reaches water of same density it spreads out 0 When water masses meet less dense water oats on top density strati cation 0 Atlantic is all over saltier than the Paci c Therefore more deep water formation in Atlantic 0 Deep water formation and sinking in North Atlantic Subsequent ow of warmer waters to region to replace the cold waters that sank 925 Oldest water is in the North Paci c youngest water is in North Atlantic 0 Time scale for cycling is 1000 years c How do we know how fast the deep ocean circulates 0 Tracking environmental pollutants 0 Looking at the age of the carbon dissolved in water Clicker questions 0 Western boundary currents such as Gulf stream are regions of Warm deep fast currents 0 Which direction does the gyre in the Southern hemisphere circulate Counterclockwise o Upwelling can occur Off the coast of California the equator coasts where there is an Eastern Boundary NO western boundary currents


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