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Psych Stats Week 5

by: Hannah Wheeler

Psych Stats Week 5 Psych 3301

Marketplace > University of Houston > Psych 3301 > Psych Stats Week 5
Hannah Wheeler
GPA 3.0
Introduction to Psychological Statistics
Sonya Stokes

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About this Document

Includes definitions and explainations of interpreting information.
Introduction to Psychological Statistics
Sonya Stokes
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Wheeler on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3301 at University of Houston taught by Sonya Stokes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
Psych Stats Week 5 Samples and Their P0pulations 0 Decision Making The risks and rewards of sampling Risks 1 The sample may not represent the larger population 2 We might not know that the sample is misleading 3 We might reach inaccurate conclusions 4 We might make decisions based on this bad information Rewards 1 The sample represents the larger population 2 We increase our level of con dence in our ndings 3 We reach accurate conclusions at a very low cost 4 We remain openminded because we know samples cam mislead us 5 We make wiser decisions based on the available evidence Random Sample 0 Every member of the populations has an equal chance of being selected into the study 0 Random samples are almost never used in the social sciences hard to access to the whole population from which to select the sample Selection Bias oWhen random sampling is not achieved and the sample does not properly represent the population Can lead to erroneously identifying relationships between variables Variation and Random Sampling 0 Convenience Sample s one that uses participants who are readily available Limitation of Convenience Sampling Generalizability The ability to apply ndings from one sample or in one context to other samples or contexts external validity Can be improved with replication Biased Sampling 0 Testimonials as Evidence Use a volunteer sample of one person Random Assignment All participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable Random selection is almost never used but random assignment is frequently used Con dence Personal probability is a rating of our con dence that this event will occur Gambler s Fallacy o The mistaken notion that the probability of a particular event changes with a long string of the same event Probabiity is not certainty unless the probability or ratio is one or zero Probabiities are longrun patterns not guarantees of what will happen Inferential Statistics 0 Use rules of probability to test hypotheses Use probability to make decisions Calculation Probability 1 Determine the total number of trials 2 Determine the number of these trials that are quotsuccessful outcomesquot 3 Divide the number of successful outcomes bu the number of trials Developing Hypotheses Null There is no difference 0 Research There is a difference 0 Control Group Does not receive the treatment 0 Experimental Group Does receive the treatment Making a Decision About Hvootheses 0 Reject the null hypothesis Concude that you found a difference Fail to reject the null hypothesis Concude that you did not nd a difference 0 Note We NEVER use the work accept or prove Type and Type II Errors 0 Statistical Inferences Can Be Wrong Type I errors 5ins ofcommission rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true Saying that something happened when it didn t 0 Type II errors 5ins ofomission failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false Saying that nothing happened when it did


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