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Week 2 Notes

by: Kat Nguyen

Week 2 Notes Bio 2010

Kat Nguyen
GPA 3.8
General Ecology
Robin Hibbs

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Includes materials from both the slides and the lectures.
General Ecology
Robin Hibbs
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kat Nguyen on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Denver taught by Robin Hibbs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Biology at University of Denver.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
WEEK 2 THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE 0 Can global climate patterns explain locations of different ecosystem types YES 0 Ecosystem biological community all of the abiotic factors that in uence that community Small sample of Colorado Ecosystems Semidesert Shrubland Grasslands Subalpine Forest Riparian 0 Climate average daily weather for an extended period of time at a given location 0 Weather current conditions in terms of temperature precipitation humidity and cloud cover Climate is What you EXPECT weather is What you GET 0 Abiotic environment is controlled by climate Availability of water and degree of heat 0 Global BIOMES predictable from climate Biomes are larger than ecosystems Global scale Large geographic area characterized by similar ora fauna and microorganisms Poles Equator TroncruL rn imam cH wayslum Particular variation in Solar radiation major driving force behind climate 0 Varies with latitude 0 Season 0 Time of day WEEK 2 0 Degree and direction of slope 0 Most of the earth39s climatic variation is caused by uneven heating of its surface by sun WHY 0 Sun angle the nearer the equator the higher the mean temperature 0 Path length sun s rays have to travel to reach earth s surface 0 The tilt of the Earth on its aXis results in seasonal changes in climate 0 Northern hemisphere tilts toward the sun during summer I warmer 0 Away from the sun during winter I colder 0 Opposite in Southern hemisphere 0 Changes in climate global warming can impact species interactions 0 Under normal conditions 13 of solar radiation bounces back 23 absorbed by atmosphere and earth s surface 0 Greenhouse gases those that can absorb emit infrared radiation water vapor C02 methane 0 Example Mountain Pine Beetle 0 Native to forests of western North America 0 Develop in pine ponderosa lodgepole Scotch limber pine 0 Periodic outbreaks occurred in the past 0 Early stages of an outbreak attacks limited to trees under stress but spread to healthy trees later on 0 Beetles bore in lay eggs hatchlings eat cambium layer that provides nutrients to the tree 0 Warming causes beetle increases bc winter not cold enough to kill larvae MILLIONS OF TREES ARE LOST o Precipitation 0 What drives spatial and temporal patterns in precipitation 0 Surface heating and uplift of air 0 Warm air is less dense than cool air so the air above the warm surface rises 0 As the warm air rises it eXpands and cools o Eventually the air cools enough to form clouds WEEK 2 0 Variation is solar radiation and temperature leads to global air circulation patterns 0 At equator Intertropical Convergence clouds surrounding the equator run around the earth 0 Equatorial heating and atmospheric circulation cells 0 Warm moist air falls from equator to either 30 N or 30 S I 2 Hadley cells 0 Ferrell cells 30 to 90 0 Polar cells 80 to 90 0 Precipitation is not a straightforward pattern 39 Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation 0 Air doesn39t appear to move directly N S Why 0 Coriolis effect when you are in the Northern hemisphere air that is at the surface re ected to the right 0 Responsible for things like tradewinds and westerlies from our perspective wind is not moving directly N S 0 Air temperature is also determined in part by temperature of waterland over which it passes 0 Water has high heat capacity take a lot of heat to increase its temp and cools more slowly than air over land 0 Ocean currents serve to distribute heat around the globe warm coastal climates o Topography 0 Air picks up moisture over water or at land hits the mountains and rises and cools releasing moisture As air descends on the other sides it warms creating a rain shadow 0 Rain shadow effect 0 West facing slope luscious forest due to rain 0 East facing slope bare lands 0 Why we don t get much rain here at DU in the rain shadow WEEK 2 0 Change in temperature according to elevation o Altitudinal temperature gradient is due to adiabatic cooling temp decreases as air pressure decreases 6 10 C lOOOm As air pressure decreases gases eXpand occupy larger volume leading to decreased temp 0 Slope effect 0 N vs S slope N slope is steeper and receives less sunlight 0 May have different communities BIOME 0 Biological communities shaped by climate geographic area characterized by similar ora fauna and microorganisms o Biomes are usually plant driven categorizations plant structure 0 Leaf Type 0 Structure broadleaf needle leaf 0 Annual Shedding or not deciduous evergreen o Succulence water storage 0 Convergent Evolution similar adaptations that arise independently in correlated groups 0 Cactus Mexico vs Spurge East Africa 0 Ecotones transitional zones bW biomes or community types 0 Whittaker s Biomes Diagram climatic zones based on precipitation and temperature I 9 general biomes defined 0 Climate diagrams summarize climatic info temp and precipitation length of wet and dry seasons 0 Months shaded in orange are above freezing 0 8 general biomes 0 Tropical rainforest 0 Constant high temp and high level of precipitation which peaks during summer WEEK 2 0 Cloud forest occurs at elevations 1000 2500m o Lush and diverse vegetation 0 Shallow root systems 0 Epiphytic plants species that grow on other plants 0 Tropical savanna 0 Constant high temp and seasonality in precipitation 0 Open grasslands containing isolated trees I grazers 0 Fire is important releases nutrients tied up in dead plants 0 Desert 0 High temp which peaks during summer and low level of precipitation 0 Rain shadow effect 0 Reduced andor hairy leaves to reduce water loss 0 Mediterranean shrubland 0 Wet season during winter and spring dry in summer and fall temperate barely varied temp o Dominated by shrubs 0 Fire is important 0 Temperate grassland 0 Strong seasonality in both precipitation and temp wet in winter and spring dry in summer and fall 0 Fire aids nutrient recycling main mode of decomposition 0 Extensive root systems allow quick regrowth above ground lt below ground biomass o Temperate deciduous forest 0 Varied precipitation there is a growing season before winter dormancy 0 Dominated by few types of trees w similar moisture and soil requirements 0 Leaves with large surface area for competitive access to light 0 Coniferous boreal forest 0 Moderate precipitation which peaks in summer freezing temp during winter and spring 0 Evergreen needle like leaves 0 Tree shape narrow at top drooping branches to shed snow 0 Permafrost on N facing slopes at high latitude prevents deep penetration of roots 0 Tundra WEEK 2 Low precipitation that peaks around summer fall temp below freezing except in summer short growing season Lots of water on surface despite low precipitation due to permafrost DarkRed color vegetation to absorbs solar radiation and warms plants precipzimrium Ing TITIi39l i I ill Fl ruin Hurti I Tr39l l it ii U i 3 g 3 g g quot iii rilf39i W mdhn i a mmmmm 39 u 211 Pm W f El 0 What determines species distribution It s not always as simple as it seems 0 Physical environment Tolerance limits 0 Biotic interactions Food Predators Competitors Parasites Diseases AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 0 Things that are not in lecture but students are responsible for o The hydrologic cycle WEEK 2 o Zonation of oceans o Zonation of lakes 0 Water connection to land estuaries salt marshes mangroves Where is the water hemam E12552 EliaEm Tushmin 1 Hahn nial U W Himmph El ll39ali l lll l 3939I39j b groundwater EIIEIIIE i u a hrji maritime JEJ i aming 1595 In W1 5 a ilfa ll bulimicr lChurnIna rmuh er Frum WildI39th anti WWIer Dammtul La wmrlnmm 0 Marine Ecosystems o Oceans cover gt70 of Earth s surface 0 Most extensive biome on Earth 0 Open ocean 0 Nutrient desert 0 Zonation by depth nutrient supply pressure 0 Major ocean habitats are distinguished by 39 Depth light and temperature decrease W depth creating a series of vertical habitat zones 39 Light 39 Proximity to coast 0 Marine zones 0 Littoral under in uence of tides intertidal down to limit of wave action 0 Neritic extends from high tide to end of continental shelf Where often there is a steep drop off 0 Pelagic in the water column regardless of depth 0 Benthic bottom habitats regardless of depth 0 Photic Zone light for photosynthesis to 200m WEEK 2 o Aphotic Zone below 200m into the black 0 Groups of organisms in aquatic ecosystems based only on how they move 0 Plankton can39t fight the current oat o Nekton fish swim o Benthos eXists at bottom of body of water 0 Tides 0 When moon and sun align fullnew moon high tides at equator and low tides at poles 39 1st and 3rd quarter moon the other way around 0 Intertidal zone 0 Tides wave action 0 Zonation by depth 39 Spray zone only occasionally gets wet 39 Intertidal not covered by water low tide under water high tide 39 Subtidal submerged except very brie y at low tide 39 Submerged always under water 0 Adaptations 39 Huge daily changes in moisture temperature turbulence and salinity 0 Some organisms have huge movement distances in relation to body size 0 Some have huge muscular foot help claim on rocks trap ball of water underneath the organism o Coral reefs and kelp forests 0 Shallow marine environments vary w LATITUDE temperate to subpolar kelp forests toward equator coral reefs o Coral reefs 0 Contain 14 of marine life I extremely diverse 0 Stable zonation relative to light all in the photic zone w light penetration 0 Corals animals with symbiotic algae 0 Freshwater ECOSYSTEMS Classified by speed of water movement WEEK 2 0 Streams and rivers fast water 0 Highly oxygenated usually 0 Most inverts live in sediments benthic 0 Primary food for consumers is algae 39 Some emergent vegetation in slower water 0 Watershed area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place 0 Ponds and lakes zonation by depth AND proximity from shore slow water 0 Thermocline a zone through which the temperature changes rapidly with depth 0 Epilimnion 0 Metalimnion 0 Hypolimnion 0 Proximity 39 Littoral zone closest to shore 39 Limnetic zone further out in the lake 39 More rooted aquatic plants than rivers primary producers are algae 0 Lake stratification and mixing lakes are not huge bodies of water and so at times are stratified by temperature 0 Dense water sinks and warmingcooling effects at the surface distribute oxygen from the surface and nutrients from the bottom 0 Lake turnover in spring and fall vertical mixing of water column maintains uniform temp 39 Move oxygen from top to bottom and nutrients from bottom to top 0 Nutrient levels N and P in lakes N and P are typically limiting factors for plant and algae growth primary producers in lakes 0 Oligotrophic 0 Low nutrients 0 Low productivity 0 Eutrophic 0 High nutrients 0 High productivity 0 Experiment WEEK 2 0 46 small deep pristine lakes 0 Manipulated N and P in lake 227 and it became eutrophic 0 Lake 226 double basin eutrophication 39 S section N only 39 N section N P I turned green due to algal bloom 0 Connection to land important in aquatic ecosystems 0 Estuaries partially enclosed body of water connected directly to the ocean that occurs near the mouth of a river 0 Mangroves treesshrubs that grow in swamps wetlands in which dominant vegetation is woody that are ooded at high tide 0 Salt marshes wetlands in which the dominant plants are herbaceous occur in depressions that accumulate and hold water COMMUNICATING RESULTS Whert we can t measure the whale peptiliatiem we sample it Metrics ahelut Aim eri ca he i What it SHETHEE heighu weight 39 F I D f n whe ID as Republican Demeerat Green Libertarian quot Haw rnarrwjr annga err their i39phd 39 iatal aeeeta Miles walked driver daiitr All erf these metrics have same tl39ietrihnat i39ranir and their average fie asaunried to have Same true value p We are ari39mtairiihF ceheerne with three metries Frequenty 1 Celhtrai tenth e heir 2 Spread MEEE39LJ redi variahie 3 Ceh dehce have certain we are ahelut elur estimatea WEEK 2 We represent pepiulatien parameters and sample suminriqanar statistics with a dif enent natatian The expected value at an entire pepulaticun is deneted as p whereas the mean fer a sample is deneted as a The expected 1tariance at an entire peplulatien is dendted as e whereas the 1irariance fer a sarnple is dendted as s 1 is far the sample standard deaiaticin Why netjust always use the mean lhi39l dl stays the same New median 5 New quot19 3quot 3 plants s 1 Mbdeaa Median145 Mean n 1 a a a s s t a it lleaaes per plant Measures cut spred Three measuires at central tendency Mean Median and Made Er Mean 2 I39l W quotE if n add Median all g Emmy an even Made mast return an value 145 m at plants Median E ll 23 4 5 F E leases per plant t 5 El 1 Why net just always use the mean The median cir made are better summary statistics when the distribiuti39pn at the data cannpt be t tan a standard prcilsalziilit39yir distributinth The rnean is sensitive te extreme values whereas the median and made tend tp fall in the center at the distributien regardless at its shape and spread Variance ltd Standard mediatin a easu re s f c d deric e Edntidence interaals Standard errar WEEK 2 Figure shduld mini have a title USE Figure IE QEI IEE heIdw figure r Unas make if hard it d r ad Era5r makes it hard in read Iiinull Innct Mm legend i5 ll iln axis label E QHun JrIEEI a quot 5 up this hm many numbers Flank hard ltd read ii39il hzliiF 5 up with the dEEimal iii axis IEEI Shad w adds nuthing Blue Elm adds nu39thing Independent variable manipulated cause Dependent variable measured effect 531 2 F1 m39 E E u Eiue Figure 1 Number if insects ught by pi39tiall traps that 39I39EliiE in han mlnr


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