Week 4 book and lecture notes on naming and conversions
Week 4 book and lecture notes on naming and conversions CHEM 103 - 002
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CHEM 103 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karlee Nelsen on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103 - 002 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Sanchita Hati in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Periodic Table of the Elements f Atomic Number Symbol Name Atomic Mass r 39 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 58 69 71 gm La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Lu lnntlmnom tinlhm F vnteodwn 1m Neod39 Ilunl mentmun Snmmlum Eumpmm Gadolinium Temmm Dltnm39um Hal llll m Flblmu u mm Jermain lu etmm U891 03 Il39 C905 3914 49393 39TIUM 1 53916 15 39 quot259 quot1153 2 24 V b 7 quot 3 9 47 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 103 212 Ac Th Pa Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md N Lr armmm lhmum Pr umqu u rrrr um N p m Hula 11 Am vvvvvv nn mem nukeum marrowum anztelmum lemuum Mendelmum Nonehum Lelien um P 39Iquot 31 J39 HG QlH39Hil u 41 3393 Iy flr il 47quot l 39539 VI 39 I 0 4 5quot I 1 M39 139 Ageing Transfan Somimetal 5 Non metal Halogen quot3 Lanmanids Aninido l 20 mm vim 11 M m mc a B ook Notes Experiments Cathode ray used a high voltage beam to isolate electrons and determine their mass Tells chemists that the mass of an electron is very small compared to a proton or neutron Radioactivity Pieire and Marie Curie isolated radioactive particles 0L alpha rays He2 3 beta ray equot y gamma ray has no mass or charge Millikan s experiment to determine electron charge Robert Millikan measured the charge of an electron by countering the force of gravity with a magnet to suspend electron Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment to determine the structure of the atom alpha particles of known sized were shot at a single atom thick gold foil and some bounced off in odd directions instead of going straight through The ones that bounced back were recorded and used to determine the size of the atoms nucleus Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeleev The first periodic table was arranged by increasing mass of elements them grouping elements with similar properties together which conveniently arranged the table into a form of periodicity Spaces were also originally left for elements that had not yet been discovered but could be predicted based on the properties of surrounding elements Properties of groups on the periodic table Metals solid at room temp except mercury they are conductors malleable and form alloys Nonmetals solid liquid or gas at room temp and are poor conductors MetalloidsSemimetals have some properties of both metals and nonmetals Group lA Alkali Metals form slippery basic solutions reactive with water and solid at room temp Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals react with water to form basic solutions Allotropes elements exist in several different and distinct forms Group 6A is essential to all life on earth All can form compounds containing 0 or S Group 7A is highly reactive exist diatomically two atoms bonded together ex C12 they combine violently with Alkali metals to form salts Halo gens Group 8A Noble gasses nonreactive Transition elements B Group vary in Charge and needs to be specified when they are named in a compound LanthanidesActinides rare earth metals not actually rare largely mines in China for use in magnets LCD screens and electric car batteries Molecular formula ex C6H1206 describes the composition of the compound with the exact number of molecules not the abbreviated version such as is show by the empirical formula ex CH20 Condensed formula shows how atoms are grouped together within a compound ex CH3CH20H Structural formula connects atoms together in a more exact configuration by connecting atoms with lines showing bonds and double bonds H H Hf f O H When naming polyatomic anions the ending ite means that the ion has lost one oxygen molecule exSO4239 Sulfate 803239 Sulfite When short two oxygen from normal the prefix hypo and ending ite are used ex Hypochlorite ion ClO39 With an extra oxygen the prefix per and ending ate are used ex Perchlorate ion ClO439 If a hydrogen is added to the beginning of a polyatomic anion the word hydrogen is said before the normal name HPO4239 Hydrogen phosphate ion or bisphosphate ion With two extra hydrogen the word dihydrogen is used ex H2PO439 Dihydrogen phosphate ion Calculations Focus on the labels first then add numbers behind labels until the desired unit is arrived at Start with the given quantity then work right The mole is your best friend when converting between elements To convert grams into moles moles of element original in grams x 2 moles of element atomic mass in g 598 0x 1mm 374 l0 399 15999go39 m0 To convert grams into molecules moles of element 6022x1023molecules origingal in grams x x atomic mass m 9 moles of element 2 molecules of element 1 mol C0 x 6022x1023molecules C0 2801g C0 1molC0 7645x1023molecules C0 3558g co x To convert moles into grams atomic mass moles x 2 mass m grams moles of element Some possible conversation factors moles moles grams 6022 x 1023atomsmoleculesparticles etc molecule of compound mole of compound molecule of atom mol of atom The conversion factors can be made into inverses of each other ipped over in order to cancel out another unit Think of simplifying a fraction but by using words as units instead of variables
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