Chapter 2: Defining and Analyzing Crime
Chapter 2: Defining and Analyzing Crime ADMJ 0500
Popular in Introduction to Administration of Justice
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Law and Legal Studies
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Blades on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ADMJ 0500 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Shawn Ellies in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Administration of Justice in Law and Legal Studies at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Chapter 2: Defining and Analyzing Crime
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/26/15
Introduction to Administration ofJustice Chapter 2 De ning and Analyzing Crime De ning Deviance Norms establish social expectations about what is appropriate behavior under different circumstances 0 Re ect a society s values about what is considered desirable and proper Deviance violation of a social norm 0 Becomes crime when laws are passed or courts apply existing laws that make a social norm into a legal norm by allowing the government to sanction the behavior 0 Sanctions are penalties designed to express disapproval and punish violation of norms Thinking versus Acting Crimes prohibit only acts or omissions of acts Sometimes crimes are thought about but not acted upon Mala in Se Mala Prohibita and Criminal Harm Mala in se evil in themselves 0 Offenses include serious crimes of assault and theft Murder Rape Robbery Larceny Burglary Mala Prohibita simply prohibited by law 0 Offenses are the result of legislative decisions to prohibit certain undesirable behaviors Alcohol us Drunkenness Drug use Gambling 0 Three general Mala Prohibita categories Crimes without victims offenses against morality Offender and the quotvictimquot engage in the act voluntarily o Adultery Fornication Prostitution Gambling Use and selling of drugs OOOO o drunkenness Political offenses political crimes 0 Any act that is viewed as a threat to the government 0 Treason o Sedition o Espionage o Sabotage o Bribery Regulatory offenses Usually activities of a business or corporate nature that are viewed as a threat to public health safety or welfare Violations of law regulating o Pollution levels 0 Workplace safety 0 Manufacture of unsafe products Overcriminalization Blurring the distinction between crime and merely inappropriate or offensive behaviors Criminalization of Behavior Legalization legislative decision to make a prohibited behavior from the criminal law What Are the Types of Crimes Three general types 0 Crimes against persons Violent crimes Involve the use of physical force lnclude criminal homicide rape assault robbery 0 Crimes against property Property is taken unlawfully and misused lnclude burglary larceny arson vandalism 0 Crimes against public order Acts that disrupt the peace in a civil society lnclude drugliquorgambling law violations disorderly conduct weapons offenses loiteringprostitution violations How Are Violent Crimes and Property Crimes Classi ed Homicide 0 Criminal homicide murder and manslaughter Murder all intentional killings and deaths occurring during dangerous felonies Manslaughter mitigated murder lnvolves causing death recklessly or intentionally under extenuating circumstances Intentional killings may be punished as manslaughter rather than as murder if it39s a quotheat of passionquot killing or imperfect self defense 0 TERMS Recklessness conscious disregard of a substantial and unjusti able risk Negligence failure to be aware of a substantial and unjusti able risk Gross negligence failure to perceive a substantial and unjusti able risk when such failure is gross deviation from the standard of care a reasonable person would observe Sexual Assault 0 Rape sexual intercourse without effective consent Sexual assault forced sex whether vaginal anal or oral Effective consent is not present if the victim is a minor mentally ill mentally retarded or physically helpless 0 Statutory rape nonforcible sexual intercourse with a minor Law39s way of protecting young people from exploitation by older ones Assault 0 Simple assault physical thrust against another person intended to injure that person 0 Aggravated assault thrust against another person with the intention to cause serious bodily harm or death Robbery o Consists of theft from a person involving threats or force Burglary o Unlawful entry into a building for the purpose of committing a crime while inside Involves trespass but breaking or force need not occur Larceny o Consists of taking the property of another person with the intent of depriving the owner 0 If force is usedD robbery if deceittrickery are used fraud forgery embezzlement Arson 0 Burning of property without the lawful consent of the owner How Are Crime Rates Determined The FBI Uniform Crime Reports An annual compilation by the FBI of all crimes reported to the police in the United States Crime rates number of crimes committed divided by the population at risk 0 Provides an indication of the risk of victimization per capita Personal risk an individual39s risk of being a victim of crime determined through calculation of crime rates in relation to population The National Crime Victimization Survey A representative sample of the US population is surveyed annually to determine the extent of victimization and the extent to which these incidents were reported to police Used to 0 Estimate the costs of victim compensation programs and thus help communities determine whether such programs are economically feasible 0 Determine the kinds of special programs needed for elderly victims of crime Older citizens fear of crime remains high even though victimization rates are low among the elderly 0 Analyze the circumstance in cases of rape in order to provide better information on ways of preventing this crime National IncidentBased Reporting System NIBRS 0 Data collection program designed to gather information on victims perpetrators and circumstances of crime What Offenders Say National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 0 Selfreport study investigating the extent of delinquency among young people Who Are the Victims and Perpetrators of Crime Age Elderly are the most fearful of crime victimized less From age twelve and younger more likely to be victimized by a violent crime 0 Rape robbery assault People 65 are victimized by rape robbery aggravated assault personal larceny 31000 Highestrisk group 1219 Gender Males are arrested three times more often than women Victimized for violent crimes men 181000 women 161000 0 Women mainly sexual assault Intimate Partner Violence 0 Disproportionality victimizes women 0 National Violence Against Women Survey NVAW Interviews a national sample of 16000 men and women regarding the circumstances of crimes against women 0 lntimate partner violence physical assaults between current or former spouses boyfriends or girlfriends Characteristics of Female Offenders 0 Higher samesex violence than men o Intimate partner violence physical assaults between current or former spouses boyfriends or girlfriends Characteristics of Female Offenders 0 Higher samesex violence than men 0 Commit the offense at or near the victim39s homeschool More likely to commit crimes against intimates relatives or acquaintances that are men 0 Use weapons only half as often as men Race and Ethnicity Whites account for 70 of arrests blacks account for 28 African Americans 0 Victims of violent crime at higher rates than any other race Hispanics 0 Higher households victimized than whites or blacks Native Americans 0 Interracial violence and arrests for alcoholrelated offenses Asian Americans 0 Lowest victimization rate out of all races Socioeconomic Status Risk of household burglary declines as income rises 0 Low and high incomes at higher risk middle incomes at lowest risks What is Crime Pro ling Involves analysis of criminal incidents to isolate the precise characteristics of offenders victims and situations in order to better understand and prevent crime 0 Behavioral pro ling focuses on characteristics and conduct of offenders and victims Demographic characteristics prior history current conduct 0 Crime scene pro ling examination of the physical and situational characteristics of criminal incidents Objective is to assess numerous incidents of similar kinds in order to develop typologies models to explain and predict how crimes occur Offender Pro les Examination of offender background physicalsocial characteristics prior history method of conduct to look for common patterns 0 Developed by examining a large number of similar crimes to look for common pattern Geographical areas of concentrated crime activity quothot spotsquot are analyzed to determine patterns and underlying issues based on speci c location repeat victimization general streets or neighborhoods Victim Pro les Examination of the circumstances surrounding criminal incidents in a search for patterns associated with criminal offending Singlefamily homes lowest risk longer someone lives in a home the lower the risk Mostly during the day between 600 AM and 600 PM Burglaries mainly occur when offender needs money 0 Look for attractive targets money or sellable property 0 Look for no sign of occupants or other guardians present dog neighbor 0 Look for convenience ease of entryexit Guns Drugs and Crime Guns Gun control regulation of gun manufacturers buyers and sellers in an effort to minimize gunrelated crime 0 Banning handguns altogether for most citizens banning assault weapons banning the carrying of weapons banning certain kinds of bullets imposing mandatory sentences for crimes using guns performing background checks of gun purchases Drugs and Alcohol Alcohol plays a role in violent crime Assessment of inmates in jail found that 23 either abused or depended on drugs or alcohol Drug reduction proposals are intended to reduce the supply of drugs or demand for them 0 Massive increases in arrests for drug crimes 0 Prevention of the ow of drugs in the United States Drug markets simply move and people follow the ow