Notes September 8 and 10
Notes September 8 and 10 Anth 1113 003
Popular in General Anthropology
Anth 1113 003
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Red-Roe on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
General Anthropology Notes September 8 and 10 Renee Roe Families Kinship Marriages and Descent Sept 8 What is kinship Relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent one of the most basic principles for organizing individuals into social groups roles categories and genealogies What is a descent aroun nonindustrial agricultural societies descent groups our nuclear family permanent social unit whose members claim a common ancestor system of acknowledged social parentage whereby a person may claim kinship ties with another descent systems vary widely importance of descent groups comes from its use as a means for individuals to assert rights duties privileges or status descent has special influence when rights to succession inheritance or residence follows kinship lines Unilineal descent o matrilineal o patrilineal Bilateral lineage 0 kin terms words for different types of relatives in language emic o kin types actual genealogical relationship etic Marriage f 3ttltmtian with significant roles and functions in a society which includes reproduction marriage can link two individual people or multiple individuals one of primary ways of converting strangers into kins through 0 family relationship based on marriage of relative exogamy links people to wider social network endogamy restricts marriage to within a group incest an universal cultural taboo defined differently by different cultures Marriage as a group alliance 0 example marrying between descent groups to produce viable heirs o dowries and bride wealth are factors plural marriages o polygamy multiple spouses o polygyny men possess more than one wife 0 polyandry women possess more than one husband ftiimli relationships Drawing Kinship Symbol Meaning Ego person whose genealogy is being traced Mo M mother Fa F father Br B brother Si Z sister Da D daughter So S son llCu parallel cousins cousins linked to ego through parents of same sex example MoSiSo or FaBrDa Mother s Sister s Daughter is Ego s cousin or Father s Brother s Daughter is Ego s cousin XCu cross cousins linked to ego through parents of opposite sex ex MoBrSo or FaSiDa Mother s Brother s Son is Ego s cousin or Father s Sister s Daughter is Ego s cousin Triangle male Square male or female can represent ego Circle female CST with slash through deceased it marriage bond with slash through it divorce horizontal line codescent bond ie siblings vertical line descent bond 0 political organization refers to the way power is distributed and embedded in societies 0 ability to bring about results 0 0 power may be informal and based on force coercive power vs persuasive power 0 legitimacy the socially recognized right to hold use and allocate power 0 authority socially recognized right to exert power power legitimacy 0 band tribe chiefdom state Elman Service 0 foragers horticulturalists agriculturalists industrialists o the different types of political organizations are related to O 0000 subsistence strategy population density and heterogeneity degree of hierarchy and social stratification presence of bounded territory degree of formalization of rule Lam s at Eu h l Ul lEE mmlli39 l Power in of Power in the hands of many small group of politically independent but related households all social relationships based on kinship least complex form of political organization foragers consensus decisions no fixed leadership only informal recognition of prowess consists of separate bands villages o integrate through lineage clans age grades or other associations crosscutting kinship and territory 0 farming and herding subsistence strategies greater food production for a greater population density 0 no centralized leadership 0 regional polity where 1 or more local groups are organized under a single ruling individual the chief who is at the head of the hierarchy of people Divine king status of all others determined by closeness to the Chief 0 office of Chief often hereditary I can be based on talent I semisacred position may amass personal wealth to add to power 0 most formal of the political organizations and is a hallmark of civilization 0 political power is centralized in a government that may legitimately use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens c has increased population food production agriculture and industry and market system 0 appearance of bureaucracy militaries and an official religion authority is formal and impersonal O O O
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