Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes SCED 305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCED 305 at Towson University taught by Dr. Jamie Silverman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
SCED 305 Week 5 9222015 9242015 In Class Readings Chapter 5 Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning 0 Behavioral learning theories focus on the ways that pleasurableunpleasant consequences change individuals behavior over time and how individuals model their behavior on that of others 0 Social learning theories focus on the effects of thought on action and action on thought 0 Cognitive learning theories emphasize unobservable mental processes that people use to learn and remember new information skills 0 What is learning I Learning a change in an individual caused by experience 0 along lasting change in the learner s knowledge as a result of experiences Mayer 2008 I As a teacher need to help students learn particular information skills and concepts I Changes caused by development growing does not mean learning I Learning and development are inseparably linked I Can be intentional classroom learning or unintentional fears I Stimuli environmental events or conditions 0 What are Behavioral learning theories I Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner 9 relationship between behavior and consequence I Pavlov Classical Conditioning o Unconditioned stimuli without any prior trainingconditioning o Unconditioned response response to stimuli occurring without prior trainingconditioning 0 Neutral stimuli stimuli have no effect on response 0 Conditioned stimulus a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus and neutral stimulus now a CS and prompts similar response to that of an unconditional stimulus o Called classical conditioning I Skinner Operant Conditioning 0 Operant behavior behavior that operate on environment in absence of unconditioned stimuli o Operant conditioning use of pleasantunpleasant consequences to change behavior 0 Controlled Situations and observing changes in behavior because of systematic changes in consequences ex Skinner Box 0 Principles of Behavioral Learning I Behavior changes according to its immediate consequences o Reinforcers pleasurable consequences strengthensincreases behaviors 0 Primary satisfy basic human needs 0 Secondary acquire value by being associated with primary or wellestablished secondary reinforcers I Social reinforcers activity token symbolic 0 Positive reinforcers praise grades stars 0 Negative reinforcers escapes from unpleasant situations 0 The Premack Principle promote behavior by making access to desire contingent on doing something less desirable Grandma s Rule 0 Intrinsic Reinforcers intrinsically motivated to do a behavior 0 Extrinsic Reinforcers rewards given to motivate one to do a behavior one wouldn t normally do 0 Punishers unpleasant consequences weakens behavior I Presentation punishment use of unpleasant consequences aversive stimuli I Removal Punishment withdrawal of a pleasant consequence 0 Response cost a cost to students each time they behave wrong 0 Timeout Classroom Use of Reinforcers decide what behavior you want and reinforce them when they occur tell students what the desired behaviors are reinforce appropriate behavior as soon as possible Practical reinforcers selfreinforcement praise attention gradesrecognition call home homebased reinforcements privileges activity reinforcers tangible reinforcers food I Consequences that follow behavior closely in time affect behavior more than delayed consequences 0 Immediate feedback makes clear the connection between behavior and consequence o Increases informational value of feedback 0 Shaking teaching of new skillsbehaviors by reinforcing learners for approaching desired final behavior I Teach skills stepbystep I Reinforced for behaviors within current capabilities o Extinction weakening of a behavior I Extinction burst increase of behavior in early stages 9 consequences for classroom management 9 rarely a smooth process I Schedule of reinforcement 0 Frequency with which reinforcers are given the amount of time between opportunities for reinforcement and predictability of reinforcement Response Patterns Schedule Definition During During Reinforcement Extinction Fixed Ratio Constant number Steady response Rapid drop in of behaviors rate pause after response rate required for reinforcement after required reinforcement number of responses passes without reinforcement Variable Ratio Variable number Steady high Response rate of behaviors response rate stays high then required for drops reinforcement Fixed Interval Constant amount Uneven rate Rapid drop in of time passes with rapid rate after interval before acceleration at passes with no reinforcement is end of each reinforcement available interval Variable interval Variable amount Steady high Slow decrease in of time passes response rate response rate before reinforcement is available I Maintenance resistance to extinction lessen o The Role of Antecedents O I Cueing antecedent stimuli precedes a behavior Inform about which behavior will be reinforcedpunished Hints to when we should shouldshould not change behavior Stimulus discrimination ability to behave one way in presence of a I Discrimination use of cues signals information to know when behavior will be At beginning reinforcements should be frequentpredictable and then can stimulus and another in the presence of a different stimulus reinforced I Generalization transfer of behaviors learned under one set of conditions to another 0 Must have feedback on correctnessincorrectness 0 their responses tell students Must usually be planned for Techniques 0 Using examples from different contexts 0 Repeat instructions in different settings Social Learning Theory and Human Learning I Outgrowth of Behavioral learning theory I Bandura Modeling imitating behavior o Observational learning 0 Attentional Phase students pay attention to role models attractive successful interesting popular 0 Retention Phase model the behavior you want students to imitate and let them practice 0 Reproduction students try to match behavior to the model s o Motivational Phase imitate a model because they believe it will increase their own reinforcement I Vicarious learning learn by seeing others reinforcedpunished for behaviors I Selfregulated learning judge behavior off own standards and reinforcepunish themselves 0 Techniques need to be applied in many contexts so it doesn t become limited 0 Set daily goals grade work setting personal standards I Meichenbaum s Model of SelfRegulated Behavior 0 Cognitive behavior modification 9 selfregulated learning 0 Selfinstruction 0 Cognitive Modeling 0 Overt external guidance 0 Overt selfguidance o Faded overt selfguidance o Covert selfinstruction o Selfreinforcement regulate own behavior 0 Information about one s behavior can change behavior 0 Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories I Limited in scope o Behavioral learning theorists focus only on observable behavior 0 Less visible learning processes thinking problem solving etc are difficult to directly observe 9 more into domain of cognitive learning I Social learning theory helps to bridge gap between behavioral and cognitive processes I Behavioral and cognitive theories 9 complementary NOT competitive