Complete chapter 6 notes
Complete chapter 6 notes BSC 2010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Cooper Mendes de Oliveira on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Steven Marks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Biological Science in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 BSC 2010 0001 Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Overview All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive Cell structure is correlated to function Cell Hierarchy Six Concepts of the Cell Cell structure and function is explained Visually and experimentally Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells differ Genetic instructions are held in the nucleus Endomemhrane systems regulate proteins and performs metabolic functions Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Cytosllteleton organizes structure Cell Structure is explained Visually and experimentally Visual microscopy Bright eld Fluorescence Confocal Deconvolution Super resolution Electron Microscopy Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation talltes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another Centrifuges fractionate cells into their component parts allows scientists to determine the function of cells Biochemistry and cytology help correlate cell structure with function All Cells are Surrounded by a Membrane The Plasma Membrane is a bilayer of phospholipids that allows for the passage of oxygen nutrients and waste to pass through ProkaryoticV Eukaryotic The basic structure and functional unit of every organism Bacteria and Archaea Prokaryotic Protists fungi animals and plants Eukaryotic Basic features of all cells Plasma Membrane Semi uid substance Cytosol Chromosomes Ribosomes Fimbriae Nucleoid Prokaryotic Ribosomes Plasma No Nucleus have a Nucleoid Bacterial chromosome 05 urn b A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans TEM No lVlembranebound organelles a A typical rodshaped bacterium No internal membrane outer membrane Eukaryotic lVlembranebound Nucleus Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 lVlembranebound organelles Generally larger The Nucleus contains most of the cell s genetic material and is usually the easiest to see of the organelles the nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus separates it from the cytoplasm consists of a lipid bilayer double bilayer houses DNA and the chemical interactions that occur Ribosomes made of RNA and protein sites of protein synthesis assemble proteins found in two locations In the Cytosol Free ribosomes On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 bound ribosomes The Endomembrane System internal membranes of eukaryotic cells Components of the Endomembrane system Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Plasma Membrane Components are either continuous or connected by vesicles Endoplasmic Reticulum accounts for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryotic cells continuous with the nuclear envelope two distinct regions of ER Smooth ER lacllts ribosomes lipid synthesis detoxi cation Rough ER studded with ribosomes bound ribosomes which produce membrane associated proteins distributes transport vesicles membrane factory of the cell Golgi Apparatus consists of attened membranous sacs call cisternae Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 lVlajor Functions modi es products of the ER Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles FedEx Lysosomes lVlembranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that digest macromolecules Hydrolyze proteins fats polysaccharides and nucleic acids Lysosomal enzymes work in the acidic environment of the lysosomes digests organelles and recycles them Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles Similarities vvith Bacteria enveloped by a double membrane contain free ribosomes and circular DNA molecules 39 Grow and The Endosymbiont Theory End plasmi Nuc39eus reticulum reproduce En9ufing ofoxygen Nuclear usmg nonphotosynthetlc envelope prokaryote which Independently becomes a mitochondrion Ancestor of endOS mbiont MitOChoni eukaryotic cells theor y host cell y Engulfing of Mitochondria photosynthetic At least pmkaryote u Chloroplast cites of cellular Sgprggttgsymhet39we respiration Mitochondrion uses OXYgGD t0 Photosynthetic eukaryote breakquot down ATP smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae two compartments are created by the inner membrane Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 intermembrane space 39 mitochondrial matrix Chloroplasts cites of Photosynthesis contain green pigment Chlorophyll Structure includes Thylakoids membranous Ribosomes Stroma Inner and outer membranes sacs stacked to r Granum form a granum iw DNA Thylakoid Intermembrane space Internal Space 32333331 and TEM of chloroplast Stroma the The Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton a network of bers extending throughout the cytoskeleton Organizes the cell s structure and activities Composed of three types of molecular structures Microtubules Micro laments lntermediate laments helps support the cell and maintain its shape interacts with motor proteins to produce motility vesicles travel along the cytoskeleton Recent evidence suggests that the cytoskeleton may help regulate biochemical activities Two types of motor protein Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 Dynein minusend directed motor moves towards a minus end Kinesins plusend directed motors moves toward a plus end Three main types of bers make up the Cytoskeleton we focus of two lVlicrotubules thickest of the three components Hollow tubes maintains the cell shape cell motility Chromosome movements during cell division organelle movement Centrosomes and Centrioles microtubules grow from a centrosome In animal cells the centrosome has a pair of centrioles Cilia and agella locomotor appendages of some cells differ in their beating patterns A core of microtubules incased in a plasma membrane basal body anchors the cilium or agellum Dynein drives the bending movements of cilium or agellum Micro laments actin laments nest components Exam 2 Notes Thursday September 17 2015 Two intertwined stands of actin Functions Maintains cell shape changes cell shape muscle contraction cytoplasmic streaming cell motility cell diVision Micro laments are solid rods built as a twisted double chain of actin form a 3D network called the cortex to help support the cell shape Micro laments that control cellular motility contain a protein myosin thicker laments composed of myosin combine with the thinner actin bers localized contraction brought on by actin and myosin drives amoeboid movement Pseudopodia cellular extensions extend and contract through the assembly and contraction of actin subunits
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