Week 5 Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 221 at Towson University taught by Christopher Cain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see British Lit in Foreign Language at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
British Literature to 1798 92120159232015 In Class End of Beowulf After killing of Grendel s mother 0 Beowulf is at his height 0 A critique of marriage alliances the Danes and the HethoBards Using the Outline of Events of Beowulf on BB 0 Unusual by modern standards I Main narrative is pretty standard but there are dozens of verses to create more narratives o The story of how Beowulf becomes King of Geatland Beowulf is a meditation of good kingship 9 does not exempt Beowulf from criticism There is a gap of 50 years between the death of Grendel s mother and the Dragon How Beowulf becomes King family tree 1 Haethcyn kills Herebeald accident 2 Hrethel dies of grief he has no one to take vengeance on 3 Ongetheow attacks the Geats 4 Haethcyn is killed in Swedish war 9 Hygelac becomes King 5 Hygelac killed on Frisian raid 6 Heardred become King 9 too young to properly rule a He harbors Eanmund and Eadglis in Geatland even though they re Swedes 7 Onela attacks Geatland and kills Heardred and Eanmund 8 Beowulf becomes King of a very diminished Geatland a Onela on orders of Ongentheow lets Beowulf rule The Swedes are the main rival of the Geats o Ruled by Ongetheow I Has two sons Ohthere and Onela marries Halfdane s daughter 0 Relation to the Danes I Ohthere has two sons Eanmund and Eadglis Beowulf surviving all of the Kingship changes is very suspicious because retainers should not survive their kings in battle 0 Should not have become King 0 And should not have not left a heir The dragon has always been around but became angered by a slavebonded servant stealing a goblet from the dragon s hoard to gain favor with his master Line 2240 Dragon s wrath story 0 Dragon s hoard come to be a city where all but one had died and he put all the treasure in one place because he had no use for it 0 There are two dimensions to treasure tribes used it as a large piece of value 1 Legacy building 2 Social relations 9 pass treasure to honorobey structure of society Wergild I Reputation of treasure is con icted I When these dimensions are broken it causes issues 0 Dragon goes insane when his treasure is taken 9 ignoring social relations Slave s story against social relations a gift cannot repair his favor The tone of the last third of the poem is hopelessness The Fight with the Dragon 0 Beowulf takes 11 men with him Jesus and the Disciples I One comes to Beowulf s aid during the ght 0 The dragon serpentlike o Beowulf is bitten in the neck I Can t use his sword because the dragon is armored I Guts dragon from underneath while being bitten 9 mortally wounded o Dracne Wyrm inspired serpentlike qualities 0 Wiglaf comes to Beowulf s aid I A loyal retainer Line 2794 0 After dragon s death 0 Beowulf instructions Wiglaf on what to do after his death I Give the dragon s treasure to his people I Directions for funeral build a barrow I The Geats bury the treasure exactly what Beowulf said not to do 0 More useless treasure ignoring social relations Doesn t hit religious messaging in Beowulf 3 death 0 Left with no one to rule and no treasure 0 Under heavy pressure from Swedes 0 Future of Geatland is at stake and doesn t look good 0 Beowulf basically died for nothing AngloSaxon Chronicle Not a single text Came from the Court of King Alfred Wessex Regional summary of events 7 different versions Alfred relied on Bishops to carry out reforms and maintain them 0 Areas can develop different traditions o Regionalized after year 950 Called annals yearly history Uniformed up until 950 then easy to identify location Viking Age AngloSaxon England is ground zero 0 7981066 0 Linguistic importance continued to record English after 1066 Analytic Selection on William the Conqueror 0 William was a good ruler 0 Not straight history but analytic 0 Edward the Confessor last AngloSaxon King I Lived a very Saintly life I Celibate never consummated marriage left no heir o 3 Claimed the Throne after Edward s death 1 Harold Godwinson slight blood relative a Natural person for the throne b Rules for a very short time 2 Harald of Norway believes he has a better claim a Invades England with an army b Battle at Stanford Bridge c Every single Norwegian person killed 3 William Duke of Normandy no ties Edward promised him the throne a Has a passable standing army b Army with advantages AS army had just fought c Convinced Pope to invent him with papal authority to rule d Battle of Hastings i AS nearly win ii Harold dies arrow to eye and dies instantly unusual l AS army quit William rules 2 Medieval wars are not normally fatal 0 AS holdings are given to Normans creates Barony class I Structure of Church changed replaced by Normans 0 French linguistic elements in uenced England linguistic elements 0 Norman conquest 1066 0 English lost in History for 200250 years I Turns to French and Latin I English is not used by importantpowerful people 0 Old English Lit AngloNorman lit after 1066 0 Very little was written in English 0 Normans were very interested in Arthurian legends I Most popular thing in culture I RomanoCeltic Britain 0 Arthur linked with a Roman past I Las legitimacy to rule because of Roman blood 0 Early Arthur writings were origin stories 0 Constantine accepted Christianity in Rome British by Birth born in Roman Britain Readings AngloNorman Literature The AngloNorman Chronicle annual recording summary of events written in English 0 Started in 891 0 Distributed to centers of learning Church where they were carried on independently I Seven manuscripts have survived I Because highly regionalized I One surviving one is the Peterborough Chronicle 0 Named after the monastery where it was held and continued until 1 154 Peterborough Chronicle 0 English perspective on the rule of the Normans after the conquest o Talks about the Death of William the Conqueror The AngoNorman Chronicle from 1087 o Obituary for William the Conqueror Wace 0 Le Roman de Brut 1155 o Wace 11101180 Norman Cleric 0 Works written in French verse for a layperson audience I Included Marie de France drew on Wace s work 0 Le Roman de Brut 9 free translation 8syllable couplets of Geoffrey of Monmouth s Latin prose History of the Kings of Britain Layamon o Brut 0 English priest I Adapted Le Roman de Brut into Middle English alliterative verse c 1190 0 16095 lines 9 expands on Wace and adds new material 0 In the selection in the NAEL it is added material by Layamon pg 124127 I Arthur s dream of Mordred s treachery usurped throne and queen forcing Arthur to return to Britain 0 Uses long alliterative line 9 Old English Poetry I Two halves of the line linked by rhyme as well as alliteration o Ties to Germanic literary tradition I In Arthur s nightmare he and Gawain are sitting on a building similar to Heorot I Below Mordred is cutting at the foundation like the gigantic rodent in Norse Mythology which gnaws at roots of Yggdrasil 9 holds together heaven earth and hell Legendary Histories of Britain 0 12th century I 3 authors created legendary history of Britain for Norman overlords 0 History was set in remote past 9 beginning with a foundation myth and ending with the AngloSaxon conquest of the native islanders RomanoCeltic settlements in the 5th6th century I The Authors 0 Geoffrey of Monmouth Latin 9 113638 0 History of the Kings of Britain 0 Wace AngloNorman French 9 1155 0 Le Roman de Brut o Layamon Middle English 9 1190 o Brut I Geoffrey and Wace wrote primarily for an audience of noblemen who were descendants of the Norman conquerors of the AngloSaxon In Class Arthur Roots in history 0 A military figure who rejected AngloSaxon rule and migration 5070 years after Rome abandoned Britain 56th century 0 Resistance fighter who represented RomanoCeltic against Germanic migration 0 Embellished throughout the Middle Ages Arthur s return Once and Future King 0 Geoffrey of Monmouth History of the Kings of Britain I Avalon fairy otherworld kingdom I Eschatology study of endtime o In MA very common because they always thought the world was going to end especially coming up to the year 1000 think Y2K I Similar to a Jesus figure a returning savior o Wace I Brutus Trojan who escapes Troy and establishes Kingdom in Britain legend 0 Basis for Britain Roman de Brut starts there I Britons 9 Welsh outliner 9 not part of AngloSaxons I Merlin 9 out of tune for Medieval Age Christianity 0 Not problematic though 0 Witchcraft was not punished until the end of MAbeginning of Modern Period 0 Witchcraft hysteria 0 Book Mcllevs Maleficarvm Hammer of Witches I Punishingcontaining women I Arthur left the realm to Constantine son of Cador of Cornwall 0 Layamon I Uther Arthur s father Uther Pendragon I Once and Future King is in earliest legends The main Arthur Legend 0 Arthur 9 GuinevereLancelot I Arthur loses is a cuckold 9 man whose wife is unfaithful I Doesn t follow heroic narrative o Celebrated through incorporation into Courtly Love genre I Forbidden love is the only love that matters I Marie de France I Genre crossed languages and classes I Ca 1100 at court of Marie de Champagne fascination for the leisure class 0 Parlor game I Not having full control over romantic love Marie de France 0 From France lived in England AngloNorman I Works are in AngloNorman I Literary works are generic only surviving form of Breton lay o Lays Arthurian material 0 Songlike poetic text 0 7 surviving Breton lays I Lanval nobler than the Kings of the Round Table foreigner in Court I Largesse generosity of spirit lovescares for humanity 0 Strong importance in Courtly Love I Animals sensitive to magic
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