SOCY 100 -- Notes week 4
SOCY 100 -- Notes week 4 SOCY 101 - 0201
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Stavisky on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 101 - 0201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Nancy Forsythe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Socioloqv 100 Notes Week 4 Chapter 3 Culture gt What is culture A The origins of human behavior as opposed to the biological origins of human behavior gt Human nature implies that there s some common factor that s inherent and common to all people However sociology is pretty militant in arguing against the concept of human nature be what matters most about how we thinklbelievelmake decisions etc is social construct gt Sociologists can t agree about whether human nature is goodbad bc there is no human nature arguing that context matters more than genes Our behavior is strongly linked to the society in which we live gt When referencing most social problems people have in the back of their mind the idea that there s some sort of genetic factor that explains why things are the way they are we are hardwired to do certain things Therefore people imagine that issues are unavoidable This is a problem we must avoid Ex People argue that gender is a biological issue that gender traits are hardwired into MW Ex Height Measuring avg woman s height vs avg male height doesn t tell us much abt any individual Ex Math scores At a certain point men tend to do better in math than women But similarly the avg female score vs avg male score doesn t tell us much abt individual scores We always have to keep in mind that the generalizations being made abt a group have nothing to do w the individual basis of traits We tend to think in ways that are reinforced by our societies We really want to hold on to gender difference even when we wish to challenge the system gt Sociology denies the biological explanation of behavior Epigenetics modification of genetic changes from one generation to the next meaning that environment can influence genes in a way much more rapid than ever before thought gt Today there is less of a clear divide between the natural and the social sciences The divide is much more artificial than thought to be hundreds of yrs ago Human nature justifies Social Darwinism Sociology is an argument against Social Darwinism Chapter 4 Society What do the main thinkers thing abt how society works Society people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture Gerhard Lenski Society and Technology 1924 Lenski uses the term sociocultural evolution to mean changes that occur as a society gains new technology gt Simple technology leads to societies having very little control over nature so they can only support small numbers of people Complex technologies allow societies to support exponentially more people with more affluence More technology faster change at tilliaiton loll Mmlam our has Tooknol og r Humllamgiono oaty aoo until PMEWE EEi aa l paopla Homgaotg Fanta jy gnhaa of Emmottng a aapona omegagt Eanlttatt FIJi IEa Ei l aomman apama tzanon Eu l39li39i39t dt rat a oatat limitad to age E SW ma a tantruma o aaa Eamal g1 today aoogat lnaq l39a39lalaj aia thraatagagi a itaatta IMana airtatg bag of anada Ho lmt tra it geta ago Hand toola tor Eat39Eatnrrla of Homgultooata Fanuty Hiddla Eaat ar39n rndl Floral Eat dacaaaalng rtultn39niata39ig BaitHat torm atnall Eantetaot aomatlaa a Bookietile numlzaara attrar plagta pzag39nanant ra gtgga m Equot Bedlammtg ayataa39n Ina gonnaotad goatsLitaan are to gtavalop through trading nm39nadlo modarata 39Itaa tofoirm aamattaanon Hoopatlaa at inoraaa39aa Haireggs aooat thouag a i jl39lltl l Front aot Emmadrawn Failllllona or aaooma Pamy Egaaa Egypt during anollatela Ericgym agar plow pieagile aorntnona out algnirtaanoe aa rconatruotton ot Iatg39a out they ganarally atanaot pyranodan degraaautga rarity oontatn a ratgzaoa l39ailadlaia39ati hugfoam today Erl39IHE porhon rot omitat aad Elmago tha gagMotto E39EEIi39IEtl39TI Eif tEd39 remargan aatartalit39a agama aatton toot aoosali mag Induaorlai HIEEE gE39EEW duanoEol lu39lllliona of gontatn Ellatlnot Moat aomettaa BookieHa aouroaa o1 moat of the ra gtoga today in Burt anatgg pggo atlon H Emerita mommad E o EIL otsam aggJFM prognomg not ammonia ayatavma au olva highly ama azad markad aooial patalata Fo39ll anidiolotrlll Emarlng In on39tgotara that Hilllona of ptatlon Inmaaaad E39sEE E EItE39hiEE regent daoadaa aupport an ramalna In agracaa aation Egandlnaiaan into aaad algaa taut though aounlmaaa ato 39E39E f f began to magma dogmaaura attiata lt39a aloatty gatttng Iaaa atrong Marx Society and Conflict Inequality 18181883 gt Marx main idea is that of social conflict the struggle between segments of society over valued resources gt Marx wants to describe society as a result of the changes caused by the IR He talks about how Capitalists turn the working class into machines bc they alienate the working class from their work gt Alienation takes place on multiple levels Alienation from the act of working Alienation from the products of work connections to land connections to land owners no tools and no animals to raise etc Alienation from other workers Alienation from human potential gt More and more people have nothing except their labor power which is the only thing they can sell Never before in history was there a market for labor Workers are not paid for what they re doing but for doing what they re told to do as they re selling their capacity to work to someone who s telling them how to work gt The products that they re producing can be sold in a commodities market for more than they re producing In this market for labor the workers are producing above what their labor is being paid this is called surplus value In certain times and certain places there is more and more competition between workers leading wages to go down Workers not only have to deal w capitalists but also between themselves There should be a basis for cooperation among workers but instead share of working seen as competition Competition takes the form of race ethnicity gender due to informal mechanism urbanrural differences Maintenance of advantage in labor market done by excluding others form of false consciousness Marx s term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society Marx sees that what workers really want to do is become capitalists when what workers really should be doing is working together against the capitalists The essential divide is not between workers but between the capitalists and the proletariat Marx s battle is to bring class consciousness to laborers gt In feudalism there was a more symbiotic relationship between the lord and the peasants because the lord depended entirely on the peasants gt Marx s main preoccupation was to see why society worked in such an unequal way at this period in time Movie refs Oliver Les Mis A capitalist takes his money and invests it back into the business to become more productive and more productive than the last guy People like capitalism because they see it as a means to innovate gt According to Marx the only way to resolve the trap of capitalism is through revolution Weber Society Ideals 18641917 The Rationalization of Society gt Weber s ideology idealism emphasized how how human ideas esp beliefs and values shape society Most important difference among societies is not how ppl produce things but the way they think about the world gt Weber used the ideal type or the abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon gt Weber focuses on ways that people think about their world gt Weber critiques Marx for dismissing the importance of religionideals and focusing more on the importance of material aspects of society even though Marx briefly mentions the role of religion in the construction of material distribution Two Worldviews Tradition and Rationality Tradition values and beliefs passed from generation to generation we don t want things to chage we want everything to stay the same Focus on continuity and generational transmission of the culture Rationality A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate matteroffact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task Transformation focused on rationality which is all about change gt Weber sees IR dvlpt of capitalism as part of the rationalization of society the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought The rise of large bureaucratic organizations is how the rationalization of society commenced Weber felt that one of the impacts of modernity is that individuals felt more responsible for how the world works and how to keep it safe It s up to the individual to follow the rules There wasn t the understanding that society created the context for people to act certain ways VIDEO GEORGE TOOKER AND RATIONALITY gt George Tooker s paintings are characterized by people being lonely gt straight lines used in painting shown to isolation of characters gt people search for a little bit of privacy in public space for fear of rejection Everyone is lonely in the midst of cold modernity Sense of being entrapped in the coldness and cutoffness of modernity Zombielike appearance Efficiency is the main goal gt Tooker underlines the intimacy of human contact as the only way to find new warmth of primary group ties of traditional society Essence of rationality cut off from other people other than through distance There are a lot of rules and regulations that control the dynamics of social life It makes people seem less like human beings and rather like numbers Weber is disturbed by the coldheartedness of modern society Before the rise of feminism the family was seen as the bulwark against modern society where people can be people and where we can hold off the modern world The family is completely integrated into modern society The nuclear family the haven in a heartless world was such a modern institution it had never existed before gt Weber studies the way on which he Lutheran protestant reformation is nuanced by Calvin Calvin thought that we were predestined in life Calvinists took the view that God would only reward the favored on earth Those who were successful were just proof that they were favored by God and predestined for heaven As a result Calvinists take on a very strong wrk ethic so they can prove their success and favor boy Go in the human world They plowed their riches back into the earth so they could get more riches for their work and be seen as more successful they take on the capitalist mentality of reinvestment into the economy Another part of what compelled Protestants to separate from Catholicism was their being fed up with the Catholic Church Weber wants to discuss the role of religion in the life of capitalism Sociologists want to describe society find out how it came to be and how it changes Rational Social Organization 7 characteristics of social organization 1 Distinctive social institutions 2 Largescale organizations 3 Specialized tasks 4 Personal discipline 5 Awareness of time 6 Technical competence 7 Impersonality gt Weber considers bureaucracy as the base of modern society Durkheim Society Function 18571920 Durkheim claimed that society has an existence apart from its individual members To love society is to love something beyond us and within us gt He s looking at patterns of social interaction which lead to individual behaviors which in turn lead to reproduction of the patterns Durkheim calls these patterns of social interaction social facts He also says that these patterns of social facts are necessary and useful for society gt Durkheim is the ideal structuralfunctionalist Structure and function Durkheim believed that bc society is bigger than any one of us it dictates how we are expected to act in any given social situation Social elements such as crime have functions that help society operate Society also shapes our personalities and provides the moral discipline that guides our behavior and controls our desires Evolving Societies Durkheim traced the evolution of social change by describing the different ways societies throughout history have guided the lives of their members In traditional societies mechanical solidarity or social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values that are strong among members of preindustrial societies guide the lives of indvs Focused on repetition and not being interested in social change Repetition of society in a mechanical way Industrialization and the division of labor or specialized economic activity weaken trad bonds so social life in modern soc is governed by organic solidarity or bonds based on specialization and interdependence Creation of distinct social institutions that become more specialized as time goes on It runs the risk of creating people who feel out off from society Durkheim warned of increased anomies in modern soc bc society provides little moral guidance for individuals gt However it simultaneously gives room for more freedom because in traditional society conformity was the biggest value Modern society focuses on change it allows for freedom and creativity The technological power and the greater freedom of modern society comes and the risk of less morals and greater anomies gt Study of deviance and crime mainly done through Durkheim crime is functional for society because it simply reinforces the rules and reinforces social bonds among those who follow the rules there will always be crime because we will always pick something that is breaking the rules and use it to reinforce the bonds between all of us about what is right and what is wrong Chapter 5 Socialization 51 Social Experience The Key to our Humanity Ex of Anna child abused by parents and isolated from all other humans until age 5 gt Wo social experience a child is unable to communicate properly as much an object as a human Socialization the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Humans need social experience to learn their culture and survive Social exp is also the foundation of human personality a person s fairly consistent patterns of acting thinking and feeling gt Another way in showing how social construct is not decided by the behavior of individuals Socialization is a lifelong process doesn t affect just children gt The flip side of socialization is the phrase the social construction of reality Durkheim talked about social structure the patterns of social interaction that guide our individual behaviors that are constantly reproduced by the individual We are constantly responding to the environment and therefore reproducing the patterns of social interaction Nothing about the social environment that is not socially connected The social context is alive and it s being constantly reproduced as we engage in social behaviors Ex gender guides our individual behaviors and every time we do that we re reproducing gender relations We shouldn t have the idea that society is an Other society is us individually The social construction of reality does not mean that we don t have choice virtually all socialization is unconscious But we re always learning it That s one of the key parts of the video still killing us softly ads act unconsciously on us Human Development Nature and Nurture The biological Sciences The role of Nature DanNin s 1859 study of evolution led people to think that human behave was instinctive simply out of nature ie through genetics This led people to believe social differences were caused by biology The Social Sciences The role of Nurture Watson 18781958 devlps theory of behaviorism behavior is not instinctive but is learned Human beh not in nature but in nurture Agents of Socialization Family Media School Peers Video Touqh Guise gt America split in two America which is against brutality and the America which looks at violence as a form of entertainment gt When talking about violence almost always talking about violent masculinity Video game industry and film industry paid by gun corporations to feature popular gun brands Violent behavior not learned but taught gt policing male behavior Young men learn to adopt the tough guise the front boys put on to keep from showing their vulnerability Boys are expected to learn their liens and act like tough guys gt qualities like compassion empathy intelligence driven out of men Taught that real men turn to violence as the goto for establishing masculine credibility Domestic violence sense of control Kids are picking up our behavior unconsciously Violence especially relevant in cartoons notably in Disney movies which are seemingly innocent Cognitive dissonance shown in this video boys want to do one thing but we re being taught not to do that All socialistion 0 boys into this type of violent behavior is not dissonant because everything in the culture is not dissonant The role of religion is the Male Guise gt Religion can be both a catalyst and a major deterrent Difficult to battle two sides of control coin family says violence religion says otherwise Overall balance of messages that boys get gt Femininity is loosening up because the roles of social roles are as gendered as our people are They therefore loosen up the role of women and it becomes a little less rigid Perhaps the moral reasoning of boys amp girls is different because they reason morally in different ways How can society be changed completely when women are the only ones changing their social roles We don t just want women to become more like men but we also need to support men who want to be more like women Fathers often think they re just doing the right thing when trying to toughen up their sons but it s confusing because the impact is so extreme Anette Loreau ethnographer who did research on families to look at how families income status affects a kid s outcome She found extremely distinct patterns of raising children participation in lots of structured activities Working class parents want their kids to be obedient because their children will likely work in conditions where they get paid to listen to the boss Meanwhile upper class parents want their kids to be creative and imaginative because those are the skills that will get them the bestjobs in management etc
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