ARTS Ch. 3
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Date Created: 09/22/14
ARTS 2000 Professor McIntosh Fall 2014 Chapter 3 Media Media The materials that make art Materials are the physical embodiment of the idea Damien Hirst For the Love of God 2007 0 Hirst is known for shocking or controversial works such as this platinum cast of an 18th century human skull with human teeth and covered in 8601 diamonds 110618 carats vanitas the impermanence of temporal life Media in 2D art 0 drawing one of the oldest disciplines using a wide range of materials 0 dry media usually stick form charcoal carbon stick created by burning wood creates deep dark areas and a range of lighter tones chalk and pastels colored materials held together by wax or glue shaped into stick almost purely pigment silverpoint produced by a stylus made of silver that leaves marks on paper or wood coated with layers of gesso a thin acrylic paint like substance as a ground known for delicacy and precise lines different drawing tools have different characteristic lines 0 wet media liquid form ink is the most common used with either brush or pen I lines made by pen marks and washes by brush are visually uid Technology provides new ways to produce drawings o artists can use computers to produce raster based drawings composed of millions of dots of color o printmaking the process of making multiple impressions using a printing plate woodblock stone or stencil I intaglio I relief fine lines a high level of detail rich dark tones artists cut into a at surface to make the image o intaglio means to cut into Italian processes o drypoint scratched on a metal late with a burin ink is then rubbed into the scratches then the plate and paper are put through the press o engraving entails cutting or incising lines into a laminated woodblock or a polished metal plate o etching a metal plate is coated with a protective ground which the artist scratches a design into I the plate is plaed in an acid bath eating away or etching the exposed metal surface o aquatint process related to etching a metal plate is covered with an acid resistant powder resin I the plate is heated melting the resin which adheres it to the plate surface I the plate is placed in an acid bath exposed areas are eaten away I the plate is inked and printed the same way as other intaglio processes areas not to be printed are cut away areas to be printed are left higher ink is applied to the higher areas the surface is sent through a press ex woodblock prints I lithography an image is drawn with an oily pencil on a limestone slab a water based liquid is applied and the oily marks resist it like making easter eggs the stone or plate is inked with an oil based ink which adheres to the greasy marks the plate or stone is then put through the press I serigraphy screen printing a stencil is attached over a piece of finely woven fabric stretched on a frame and ink is squeezed through the open areas of the stencil and deposited on the surface below I monotype single impression makes only one impression of an image a drawing is rendered in oil or water soluble pain on a sheet of plexiglass or metal Paper is placed on top of the rendering and hand rubbed or put through a press I some artists combine multiple techniques in the same print the Chinese invented wooden an ceramic type in 1041 movable type matrix the worked woodblock stone metal plate or silkscreen from which an image is printed edition a series of identical prints pulled from a single or series of matrices proof artists proof images printed prior to creating the final edition in order to make artistic alterations to the matrix test the consistency and amount of ink coverage and to make last minute color decisions in 1444 Johann Gutenberg reinvented both movable type and a press to print with it in painting media consists of two basic components o pigments intense colors in powder form o binder substance into which pigment is blended holds the components together when dry paintings need some kind of support usually stone clay plaster wood panels paper fabric or found objects Some of the oldest surviving paintings were made of clay vessels o tempera pigments mixed with egg yolk which is the binder o watercolors pigments suspended in a gum arabic a water soluble glue binder o gouache water with white chalk creates opaque paint encaustic is one of the most ancient forms of painting media pigments are mixed into hot beeswax then blended until cool fresco is used for large murals painted directly on walls o fresco secco pain is applied to a dry plaster o buon fresco true fresco the plaster is wet pigment is suspended in water applied to and soaks into the surface which results in a very durable painting oil paint powdered pigments are ground into a slow drying oil usually linseed and are soluble in turpentine or mineral spirits o has been used since the 15th century acrylic paint pigment ground with a synthetic polymer liquid binder dries quickly into a exible film can be applied to almost any support sprayed pain o airbrush small spray gun the side of a pen compressed air is forced through the airbrush which atomizes the liquid paint allowing it to be sprayed o aerosol cans compressed air and quickdrying permanent paint often used by graffiti artists fabric needlework and weaving transitions from the 2D to 3D artworks covers a range of art object o tapestries o quilts o rugs o embroidery involves decorative stitch patterns on fabric o other woven objects methods and media in 3D art ranges from o traditional to new media o freestanding sculptures objects meant to be seen from all sides o relief sculpture seen only from the front I usually carved out of a ingle stone or wood block o sitespeci c sculpture specifically designed for a particular place the space becomes part of the experience of the artwork o kinetic works actual movement is part of the piece carving technique for creating 3D art artists remove unwanted material from a large block of stone wood or a synthetic product o called a subtractive process modeling the pushing and pulling of a malleable substance such a clay or wax o called an additive process because material is built up to create the final form functional ceramics are made with the additive process using clay o these pieces are vessels platters cups pitchers made out of coils or slabs of clay or thrown on a wheel modeled sculpture is cast in bronze or plaster o for large bronze sculptures artists use the cire perdue process lost wax casting method produces a hollow metal sculpture with thin walls assembled works are made of various parts that are put together o mixed media mixing up the methods and media o when found objects are incorporated the works are called assemblages combines are works that are both painting and sculpture sculptures can be made from computeraided design files and then printed on 3D printers o the choice of media and materials supports the basic idea behind this artwork installation mixedmedia artworks designed for a specific interior or exterior space o churches are often designed like installations they create a spiritual environment performance a live action event staged as an artwork the human body is the prime element in performance art it is related to installation because it transforms the space technology based media 0 photography a light sensitive surface is exposed through a lens and creates an image on the surface I early photographic processes were daguerreotypes platinum prints and silver prints I camera obscura predecessor of the modern camera 0 cibachrome a photographic color printing technology with vivid fade resistant colors high detail and is printed on a polyester base rather than paper 0 photomontage a collage or combination of photgraphs that are manipulated an altered to create a new image 0 The moving image lm and video photographs shot in sequence when projected the still images give the illusion of movement
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