One Week of Notes 9/21-9/25
One Week of Notes 9/21-9/25 BSC 116
Popular in Principles Biology II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for One Week of Notes 9/21-9/25
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/15
Biology 1 16 Professor Jennifer Howeth Notes for 921925 Plant Behavior behavior is often perceived ass an animal phenomenon behavior is an action carried out by muscles or glands under control of a nervous system in response to a stimulus Phytochromes and Etiolation modifications of growth form from the dark ex a potato grows in the dark no leaves no chlorophyll all white energy put into root elongation Deetiolation switch to typical above ground morphology due to the presence of light Phytochrome reception in cytoplasm many receptortype molecules in the membrane light shines through the membrane and activates the phytochrome protein changes the structure Transduction weak signals are amplified by second messengers two openings 1 cGMP activates protein kinase 2 opens gate Ca2 channels protein kinases act on other proteins to produce a response Plant Hormones small molecules produced in one part of plant body that can be localized and transported to other parts to elicit a response idea plant hormones developed from studies of phototropism grow toward light shape of shoot depends upon receptors in coleoptile message carried by a soluble horomone auXin isolates and shown to elongate darkside auXin does not work this way in all systems Eight Important Classes of Plant Hormones small molecules produced in small amounts amplified by signal transduction most hormones involved in regulation in growth don t memorize chart spend time on the three specific hormones discussed in class Auxin promotes cell elongation of shoots control pattern formation natural auxin produced in shoot apex transported down stem via symplast too fast for diffusion too slow for phloem sap Acid Growth Hypothesis auxin stimulated proton pumps and green expression acidify cell wall with expansions which loosen cell wall prime wall and prepare it for expansion voltage potential brings cations into cytoplasm swells with water increase turgor pressure transcription factor that produce proteins that stimulate growth too much auxin can inhibit growth synthetic form used Cytokinins adeninederivatives that stimulate cytokinesis produced in actively growing tissues roots move up via xylem sap 1 In combination with auxin promote cell division no cytokinins 11 cell elongation no division cytokinins alone have no effect 2 Control Apical Dominance auxins from apical bud suppress auxillary buds cytokinins from roots stimulate axillary buds ratio determines axillary bud initiation Ethylene response to stress mechanical pressure maturation of fruit and stimulate death 1 triple response response when shoot obstructed a slows elongation b stem thickens c curves stem horizontally 2 senescence programmed death of organs or entire plant burst of ethylene associated with apoptosis when individual cells die 3 leaf abscission loss of leaves from deciduous trees when water availability decreases 4 fruit ripening increase in sugar cell walls broken to soften it triggers ripening Photomorphogenesis change shape in response to light also use light to measure periods of days and years positive phototropism growth toward the light blue light receptors can detect blue part of light spectrum red light detected germination shadingactivates phytochrome Phytochrome conversion controls shade avoidance assess light quality Eukaryotes maintain an internal clock help regulate daily changes circadian rhythms daily biological cycles not result of specific stimulus photoperiodism a physiological response to day and night length gravitropism have statoliths to determine direction of gravity dense organelles sink to one side of the cell indicates down thigomotropism plants respond to touch rubbing plants regularly inhibits growth respond to turgor pressure action potential Herbivory and Pathogens can lead throughout plant my phloem ex salicylic acid circulated throughout plant by phloem activates transduction pathway and production of resistance proteins 92315 Clicker Question Which hormone is most likely to cause a plant to ripen Answer Ethylene Clicker Question Which plant hormone would have an effect on leaves falling off during the fall season Answer Ethylene Lecture 15 Early Animals multicellular organisms that occur in several clades characteristics body cavities tissue organization What is an animal multicellular heterotrophs depend on other organisms to live no cell walls collagen protein support sexual reproduction diploid adults produce haploid gametes typically a agellated sperm and large egg zygote develops into a gastrula cleavage furrow division without growth blastula hollow ball of cells internal cavity blastocoel gastrulation Life Cycles may or may not involve larvae direct development offspring looks like a little version of parent eg Mammals indirect development young offspring larvae morphologically and ecologically different than the adult must go through metamorphosis animals most closely related to colonial choano agellate protists choano agellates similar to choanocyte sponges molecular clock ancestor of living animals 675800 million years earliest large animal fossils in the Ediacarian 500 665 million years sponges jelly fish all marine Gist of 535 Million Years Paleozoic Era rapid appearance in fossil record of most animal phyla led to increased 02 began in ocean anthropoids and vertebrates started invading land ended with a large extinction End Permian Extinction Mesozoic Era Age of Dinosaurs bounceback of animals after extinction coral reefs increased diversity of shallow marine habitats first appearances of mammals birds and owers endcretaceous extinction wiped out dinosaurs Cenozoic Modern Era diversification of large mammals including humans Animals have conserved Body Plans development under control of hox genes regulate transcription Three Aspects of Body Plan 1 Symmetry 2 Tissue Organization 3 Body Cavities Symmetry sponges asymmetrical radial symmetry can be divided in many ways just top and bottom no right or left sessilesit on the ocean oor planktonic species most animals have bilateral symmetry only one plane produces equal halves dorsal ventral anterior posterior cephalization having front end head typical of animals that move Tissue Organization SPONGES are the only animals that lack true tissue cells dedifferentiate radial and bilateral animals go through gastrulation archenteron embryonic gut endoderm tissue lining gut ectoderm outer layer of cells nervous system radial symmetry diploblasts only 2 tissue types bilateral triploblasts have a third germ layer mesoderm this forms all other organs Triplobastic Animals coelom uidfilled body cavity coelomates body cavity lined with mesoderm includes tissue derived from endoderm pseudocoelomates not completely lined with mesoderm includes tissue derived from endoderm acoelmates lack body cavity Coelomates Two Forms protosoms solid masses of mesoderm expand to fill blastocel deuterosomes mesoderm buds of endoderm of archenteron difference in early zygotic cleavage protosomes determinate spiral cleavage deuterosomes blastopore becomes anus Molecular Phylogeny Differs some deuterosomes more closely related to protosomes there are points of agreement 925 what are diploblastic organisms Contain to tissues endoderm and ectoderm Clicker question Why do porifera represent a separate lineage distinct from all other animal phyla Answer Sponges lack true tissues Clicker question Which of the following is not a characteristic of cnidaria Answer choanocytes Introduction to invertebraes Wide variety of body plans among animals 5 Major Groups 1 Porifera sponges 2 Cnidaria jelly fish sea anemones coral 3 Lophotrochozoa atworms mollusks 4 Ecdysozoa anthropods nematods 5 Deuterostomia Phylum Porifera Sponges Sponge diagram on exam most basalancestral no true tissue body organized like a perforated vase that water ows through many small holes ostia leading to a big open internal space spongocoel with a big top opening osculum ongocoel lined by agellated collar cells chanocytes water ows in ostia and out osculum suspension feedersL filter and capture food particles from water no inner tissue inner and outer layers of cells separated by mesophyl may have hard shell calcium carbonate or silica based or firm spongin like collagen roving amoebocytes mostly hermaphrodites sequential will be male at one specific type and female another Phylum Cnidaria Fancy Gastrulas radially symmetrical diploblasts no thrugut gastrovascular activity alteration of generations asexual vs sexual two phases medusa mouth down swimming sexual polyp mouth up sedentary asexual have stinging cells called cniodocytes on tentacles stinging organelles called a nematocyst no mesoderm no true muscles weak contractile cells nervous system diffuse nerve net detect and respond to stimuli in all directions Four Classes Class hydrozoa alternates between medusa and polyp phases indirect development scyphozoa and cuboza jellyfish and box jellies a polyp stage small relative to medusa Class anthorchozoa group of bilaterians Most belong to the bilateria bilateral symmetry have head etc triploblastic mesoderm for muscles Lophotrochozoa group of bilateria trochophore phylum platyhelmines at worms phylum annelida segmented form Platyhelmines can be free living or parasitic atworms generally long and at acoelromates mainly parasites like cnidarians though they have a gut and gastrovascular cavity unlike cnidarians have organs to maintain osmotic balance protonephridia with cells called ame bulbs most hermaphrodites Four Classes class turbellaria planarians free liVing classes mongena and terrnatoda uke class cestodo tapeworms class cestoda tapeworms intestinal parasites Annelids segmented worms long and cylindrical coelomates diVided by septa body made of repeating segments organs in each segment have a throughgut mouth and anus some hermaphrodites some gonochoristic separate sexes class polychaeta marine class ollogochaeta earth worms mostly terrestrial class hirudinea leeches mostly freshwater
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'